tm2321107-1_424b5 - none - 8.2500261s
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The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to the securities has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission. This preliminary prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus are not offers to sell these securities, and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.
 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
 Registration No. 333-272248
Subject to Completion, Dated July 12, 2023
Preliminary Prospectus Supplement
(to Prospectus dated May 26, 2023)
$200,000,000
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_bicycle-bw.jpg]
American Depositary Shares Representing Ordinary Shares
Non-Voting Ordinary Shares
We are offering $200,000,000 of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, each representing one ordinary share, nominal value £0.01 per share, and, in lieu of ADSs to investors that so choose, non-voting ordinary shares, nominal value £0.01 per share, pursuant to this prospectus supplement.
Our ADSs are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “BCYC.” On July 11, 2023, the last reported sale price of our ADSs was $23.58 per ADS.
Following this offering, we will have two classes of ordinary shares: voting ordinary shares and non-voting ordinary shares. For a description of the rights of the voting ordinary shares, please see “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association” beginning on page 11 of the accompanying prospectus. For a description of the rights of the non-voting ordinary shares, please see “Description of the Non-Voting Ordinary Shares” beginning on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise noted, all references in this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus to our “ordinary shares” refer to our voting ordinary shares. Our non-voting ordinary shares will not be listed for trading on Nasdaq or any other securities exchange.
Our business and an investment in our securities involve significant risks. These risks are described under the caption “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Per
ADS/Non-
Voting
Ordinary
Share
Total
Public offering price
$     $    
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
$ $
Proceeds to us, before expenses
$ $
(1)
See “Underwriters” for a description of compensation payable to the underwriters.
The underwriters may also purchase up to $30,000,000 of additional ADSs from us at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions, within 30 days from the date of the final prospectus supplement.
Delivery of the ADSs and non-voting shares in this offering is expected to be made on or about            , 2023.
Joint Book-Running Managers
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC Jefferies
Leerink Partners
The date of this prospectus supplement is            , 2023.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of an automatic shelf registration statement on Form S-3ASR (File No. 333-272248) that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on May 26, 2023, utilizing a “shelf” registration process as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. This prospectus supplement describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates the information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The accompanying prospectus gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. If there is a difference between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. Generally, when we refer to the prospectus, we are referring to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus combined.
We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different than or inconsistent with the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the underwriters are not making an offer to sell our securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents, regardless of the time of delivery of those respective documents or the sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”
Neither we, nor any of the underwriters, has done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of our securities in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our securities and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Bicycle,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Bicycle Therapeutics plc and its wholly owned subsidiaries.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
The following summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our securities. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, you should read and consider carefully the more detailed information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including our historical financial statements and notes to those financial statements, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. Please read the sections entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023 and in the other documents incorporated by reference, including other documents that we subsequently file with the SEC, for more information about important risks that you should consider before investing in our securities.
Company Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing a novel class of medicines, which we refer to as Bicycles, for diseases that are underserved by existing therapeutics. Bicycles are fully synthetic short peptides constrained to form two loops which stabilize their structural geometry. This constraint facilitates target binding with high affinity and selectivity, making Bicycles attractive candidates for drug development. Bicycles are a unique therapeutic modality combining the pharmacology usually associated with a biologic with the manufacturing and pharmacokinetic, or PK, properties of a small molecule. The relatively large surface area presented by Bicycles allows targets to be drugged that have historically been intractable to non-biological approaches. Bicycles are excreted by the kidney rather than the liver and have shown no signs of immunogenicity to date, qualities which we believe explain the molecules’ favorable toxicological profile.
We have a novel and proprietary phage display screening platform which we use to identify Bicycles in an efficient manner. The platform initially displays linear peptides on the surface of engineered bacteriophages, or phages, before “on-phage” cyclization with a range of small molecule scaffolds which can confer differentiated physicochemical and structural properties. Our platform encodes quadrillions of potential Bicycles which can be screened to identify molecules for optimization to potential product candidates. We have used this powerful screening technology to identify our current portfolio of candidates in oncology and intend to use it in conjunction with our collaborators to seek to develop additional future candidates across a range of other disease areas.
Our product candidates BT5528, BT8009, and BT1718 are each a Bicycle® Toxin Conjugate, or BTCTM. These Bicycles are chemically attached to a toxin that when administered is cleaved from the Bicycle and kills the tumor cells. We are evaluating BT5528, a second-generation BTC targeting Ephrin type A receptor 2, or EphA2, in a company-sponsored Phase I/II clinical trial and BT8009, a second-generation BTC targeting Nectin-4, in a company-sponsored Phase I/II clinical trial. In addition, BT1718 is being developed to target tumors that express Membrane Type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, or MT1 MMP, and is being investigated for safety, tolerability and efficacy in an ongoing Phase I/IIa clinical trial sponsored and fully funded by the Cancer Research UK Centre for Drug Development, or Cancer Research UK. In addition, our product candidates BT7480 and BT7455 are each a Bicycle tumor-targeted immune cell agonist®, or Bicycle TICATM. A Bicycle TICA links immune cell receptor binding Bicycles to tumor antigen binding Bicycles. We are evaluating BT7480, a Bicycle TICA targeting Nectin-4 and agonizing CD137, in a company-sponsored Phase I/II clinical trial, and we are conducting IND-enabling studies for BT7455, an EphA2/CD137 Bicycle TICA. Our discovery pipeline in oncology includes Bicycle-based systemic immune cell agonists and Bicycle TICAs.
Beyond our wholly owned oncology portfolio, we are collaborating with biopharmaceutical companies and organizations in therapeutic areas in which we believe our proprietary Bicycle screening platform can identify therapies to treat diseases with significant unmet medical need.
 
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Recent Developments
Certain Unaudited Preliminary Financial Results
The preliminary financial results included in this prospectus supplement have been prepared by, and are the responsibility of, Company’s management. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP has not audited, reviewed, examined, compiled, nor applied agreed-upon procedures with respect to the preliminary financial results. Accordingly, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP does not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto.
We estimate that our cash and cash equivalents were approximately $340.4 million as of June 30, 2023. This amount is unaudited and preliminary and is subject to completion of financial closing procedures. As a result, this amount may differ from the amount that will be reflected in our financial statements as of and for the quarter ended June 30, 2023. Our financial statements for the quarter ended June 30, 2023 will not be available until after this offering is completed, and consequently will not be available to you prior to investing in this offering.
Summary of Selected Risk Factors
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties which you should be aware before making a decision to invest in our ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares. These risks and uncertainties include, among others, the following:

We have a history of significant operating losses and expect to incur significant and increasing losses for the foreseeable future, and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.

We may need substantial additional funding, and if we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product discovery and development programs or commercialization efforts.

We are substantially dependent on the success of our internal development programs and of our product candidates from our Bicycle Toxin Conjugate, or BTCTM, and Bicycle tumor-targeted immune cell agonist®, or Bicycle TICATM, programs, which may not successfully complete clinical trials, receive regulatory approval or be successfully commercialized.

We are at an early stage in our development efforts, and our product candidates and those of our collaborators represent a new category of medicines and may be subject to heightened regulatory scrutiny until they are established as a therapeutic modality.

We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials, which could delay or prevent us from proceeding with clinical trials of our product candidates.

Results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials may not be predictive of results of future clinical trials.

Our current or future product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs, or IND, that could halt their clinical development, prevent their marketing approval, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences.

We may be delayed or not be successful in our efforts to identify or discover additional product candidates.

We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

The market opportunities for any current or future product candidate we develop, if and when approved may be limited to those patients who are ineligible for established therapies or for whom prior therapies have failed, and may be small.

Even if we receive marketing approval of a product candidate, we will be subject to ongoing regulatory obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional
 
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expense, and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with our products, if approved.

We face significant competition and if our competitors develop and market products that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the product candidates we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.

If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent and other intellectual property protection for our products and product candidates, or if the scope of the patent and other intellectual property protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize products similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our products and product candidates may be adversely affected.

The market price of our ADSs is highly volatile, and holders of our ADSs may not be able to resell their ADSs at or above the price at which they purchased their ADSs.

There is no public market for the non-voting ordinary shares and holders of non-voting ordinary shares will have fewer rights than holders of our ordinary shares until such holders of our non-voting ordinary shares elect to re-designate their non-voting ordinary shares as ordinary shares.

As a company based outside of the United States, we are subject to economic, political, regulatory and other risks associated with international operations.
Corporate Information
In 2009, we were incorporated as a limited liability company under the laws of England and Wales. In 2017, we effected a reorganization to create a new holding company which, in connection with our initial public offering, or IPO, in May 2019, was re-registered as a public limited company named Bicycle Therapeutics plc, which is the issuer of the securities described in this prospectus supplement. Bicycle Therapeutics plc is the parent company of three wholly owned subsidiaries, two of which are based in Cambridge, United Kingdom and one of which has its principal office in Massachusetts, United States.
The English subsidiaries are BicycleTx Limited and BicycleRD Limited, and the U.S. subsidiary is Bicycle Therapeutics Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at Blocks A & B, Portway Building, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6GS, United Kingdom, and our phone number is +44 1223 261503. Our website address is http://www.bicycletherapeutics.com. The information contained in or accessible from our website is not incorporated into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of the prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our securities.
We own various trademark registrations and applications, and unregistered trademarks, including our name and our corporate logo. All other trade names, trademarks and service marks of other companies appearing in this prospectus supplement are the property of their respective holders. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus supplement may be referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend to use or display other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
 
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THE OFFERING
ADSs to be offered by us:
               ADSs, each representing one ordinary share.
Non-voting ordinary shares to be offered by
us:
        non-voting ordinary shares.
Option to purchase additional ADSs
from us:
We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days to purchase up to          additional ADSs from us at the public offering price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions.
Total voting ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) to be outstanding immediately following this offering:
            ordinary shares (or             ordinary shares if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional ADSs from us is exercised in full).
Non-voting ordinary shares to be outstanding immediately after this offering:
        non-voting ordinary shares.
ADSs:
Each ADS represents one ordinary share, nominal value £0.01 per share. The offered ADSs may be evidenced by American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs. As a holder of ADSs, you will not be treated as one of our shareholders and you will not have shareholder rights. You will have the rights of an ADS holder or beneficial owner of ADSs (as applicable) as provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and holders and beneficial owners of ADSs from time to time. To better understand the terms of our ADSs, see “Description of American Depositary Shares” beginning on page 28 of the accompanying prospectus. We also encourage purchasers of ADSs to read the deposit agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.
Depositary:
Citibank, N.A.
Use of proceeds:
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund the continued development of our proprietary pipeline and for other research and development, as well as for general corporate purposes. See the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”
Voting rights:
Following this offering, we will have two classes of ordinary shares: voting ordinary shares and non-voting ordinary shares. For a description of the rights of the voting ordinary shares, please see “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association” beginning on page 11 of the accompanying prospectus. For a description of the rights of the non-voting ordinary shares,
 
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please see “Description of the Non-voting Ordinary Shares” beginning on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement. Our non-voting ordinary shares will not be listed for trading on Nasdaq or any other securities exchange.
Risk factors:
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See the section entitled “Risk Factors” on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
The Nasdaq Global Select Market Symbol:
“BCYC”
The above discussion is based on 30,031,758 voting ordinary shares and zero non-voting ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2023, and excludes:

7,297,630 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of share options as of March 31, 2023, at a weighted-average exercise price of $23.68 per share;

452,576 shares reserved for the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted share units;

854,510 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans as of March 31, 2023, as well as any future increases in the number of ordinary shares reserved for issuable under such plans;

1,200,413 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our employee share purchase plan as of March 31, 2023, as well as any future increases in the number of ordinary shares reserved for issuance under such plan; and

520,000 ordinary shares sold pursuant to our at-the-market offering program between March 31, 2023 and the date of this prospectus supplement.
Except as otherwise indicated, the information in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional ADSs from us.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors and the risk factors discussed in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, as updated by our subsequent filings, including in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus in their entirety, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The risks and uncertainties described in these documents are not the only ones we face. Other risks and uncertainties, including those that we do not currently consider material, may impair our business. If any of the risks discussed below or incorporated by reference actually occur, our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flows could be materially adversely affected. This could cause the value of our securities to decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to this Offering
If you purchase our securities in this offering, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution in investment. You will experience further dilution if we issue additional equity securities in future financing transactions.
Since the offering price per ADS or non-voting ordinary share is higher than the net tangible book value per ADS or ordinary share, you will suffer immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of the ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares you purchase in this offering. As a result, investors purchasing ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this offering will incur immediate dilution of approximately $      per ADS or non-voting ordinary share, based upon the offering price of $      per ADS or non-voting ordinary share, and our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2023, after giving effect to this offering, including the issuance of          ADSs and          non-voting ordinary shares for an aggregate purchase price of $      (assuming the re-designation of all of our non-voting ordinary shares sold in this offering as       ordinary shares). See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed discussion of the dilution you will incur if you purchase ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this offering.
In addition, we have a significant number of share options and restricted share units outstanding and reserved for future issuance. To the extent that these vest or have been or may be exercised, investors purchasing in this offering may experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our shareholders or result in downward pressure on the price of our ADSs.
We and our executive officers and directors have entered into lock-up agreements with the underwriters under which we and they have agreed, subject to specific exceptions described in the section entitled “Underwriters,” not to sell, directly or indirectly, any ADSs or ordinary shares without the permission of the underwriters for a period of 60 days following the date of this prospectus supplement. We refer to such period as the lock-up period. When the lock-up period expires, we and our executive officers and directors will be able to sell our ADSs in the public market. In addition, the underwriters may, in their sole discretion, release all or some portion of the ADSs subject to lock-up agreements at any time and for any reason. Sales of a substantial number of such ADSs upon expiration of the lock-up, the perception that such sales may occur, or early release of these agreements, could cause our market price to fall or make it more difficult for you to sell your ADS at a time and price that you deem appropriate.
Our management might apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may impair the value of your investment.
Because we have not designated the amount of net proceeds from this offering to be used for any particular purpose, our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds
 
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from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of the offering. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, to fund the continued development of our proprietary pipeline and for other research and development, as well as for general corporate purposes. Our management might apply these proceeds in ways with which you do not agree, or in ways that do not improve our financial condition or market value, which could compromise our ability to pursue our growth strategy and adversely affect the market price of our ADSs.
The dual class structure of our shares may limit your ability to influence corporate matters and may limit your visibility with respect to certain transactions.
The dual class structure of our shares may limit your ability to influence corporate matters. Holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of our non-voting ordinary shares are not entitled to any votes. Nonetheless, non-voting ordinary shares may be re-designated at any time as ordinary shares at the option of the holder by providing written notice to us, subject to certain restrictions as summarized in the section of this prospectus supplement titled “Description of the Non-Voting Ordinary Shares.” Consequently, if holders of our non-voting ordinary shares following this offering exercise their option to make this re-designation, this will have the effect of increasing the relative voting power of those prior holders of our non-voting ordinary shares, and correspondingly decreasing the voting power of the holders of our ordinary shares, which may limit your ability to influence corporate matters. For example, immediately following this offering, the ordinary shares will have 100% of the voting power, but if the holders of non-voting ordinary shares were to re-designate all of their shares as ordinary shares, the prior ordinary shares would have    % of the voting power, and the former non-voting ordinary shares would represent    % of the voting power.
There is no public market for the non-voting ordinary shares being offered in this offering.
There is no public trading market for the non-voting ordinary shares being offered in this offering, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to list the non-voting ordinary shares on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other securities exchange or nationally recognized trading system. Without an active trading market, the liquidity of the non-voting ordinary shares will be limited.
Holders of our non-voting ordinary shares will have fewer rights than holders of our ordinary shares until such holders of our non-voting ordinary shares elect to re-designate their non-voting ordinary shares as ordinary shares.
Until the holders of non-voting ordinary shares being offered in this offering re-designate their non-voting ordinary shares as ordinary shares, such holders will have fewer rights than our other shareholders with respect to their non-voting ordinary shares. For a description of the rights of the non-voting ordinary shares, please see “Description of the Non-Voting Ordinary Shares.”
Significant holders or beneficial holders of our ordinary shares may not be permitted to re-designate non-voting ordinary shares that they hold as ordinary shares.
A holder of non-voting ordinary shares will not be entitled to re-designate any non-voting ordinary shares as ordinary shares which, upon giving effect to such re-designation, would cause the aggregate number of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) beneficially owned by the holder (together with its affiliates) to exceed 9.99% of the number of our ordinary shares (including ordinary shares in the form of ADSs) that would be outstanding immediately after giving effect to the re-designation. As a result, you may not be able to re-designate your non-voting ordinary shares as ordinary shares at a time when it would be financially beneficial for you to do so. In such circumstance you could seek to sell your non-voting ordinary shares to realize value, but you may be unable to do so in the absence of an established trading market for the non-voting ordinary shares.
 
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are based on our management’s current beliefs, expectations and assumptions about future events, conditions and results and on information currently available to us. Discussions containing these forward-looking statements may be found, among other places, in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated by reference from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC.
Any statements in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, or incorporated by reference herein or therein, and any free writing prospectus, about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and are forward-looking statements. Within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, these forward-looking statements include statements regarding:

the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs;

our ability to advance our product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;

our reliance on the success of our product candidates in our Bicycle® Toxin Conjugate, or BTCTM, Bicycle tumor-targeted immune cell agonist®, or Bicycle TICATM and other pipeline programs;

our ability to utilize our screening platform to identify and advance additional product candidates into clinical development;

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;

the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;

our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities;

the pricing, coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;

the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business, product candidates and technology;

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and technology;

our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights and proprietary technology of third parties;

costs associated with defending intellectual property infringement, product liability and other claims;

regulatory developments in the United States, the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions and changes to the laws and regulations of England and Wales, and other jurisdictions;

estimates of our expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;

the amount of and our ability to satisfy interest and principal payments under our debt facility with Hercules Capital, Inc., or Hercules;

the potential benefits of strategic collaboration agreements and our ability to enter into strategic arrangements;

our ability to maintain and establish collaborations or obtain additional grant funding;
 
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the rate and degree of market acceptance of any approved products;

developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including competing therapies;

our ability to effectively manage our anticipated growth;

our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel;

future revenue, hiring plans, expenses, capital expenditures, capital requirements and share performance;

the impact of public health crises and other adverse global economic conditions on our operations and the potential disruption in the operations and business of third-party manufacturers, contract research organizations, or CROs, other service providers, and collaborators with whom we conduct business;

recent adverse developments affecting the financial services industry;

potential business interruptions resulting from geo-political actions, such as war and terrorism or the perception that such hostilities may be imminent;

our failure or perceived failure to comply with existing or future laws, regulations, contracts, self-regulatory schemes, standards, and other obligations related to data privacy and security (including security incidents) that could harm our business, increase the costs of our products or services, limit their use or adoption, and otherwise negatively affect our operating results and business; and

our expectations regarding the uses of the proceeds from this offering.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expects,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” or the negative or plural of those terms, and similar expressions intended to identify statements about the future, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
You should refer to the risks and uncertainties described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus we authorize for use in connection with this offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Given these risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will prove to be accurate, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.
Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or developments occurring after the date of this prospectus supplement, even if new information becomes available in the future.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We expect to receive approximately $      million in net proceeds from the sale of           ADSs and       non-voting ordinary shares offered by us in this offering (or approximately $       million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase          additional ADSs in full), after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
We intend to use the net proceeds from the offering to fund the continued development of our proprietary pipeline and for other research and development, as well as for general corporate purposes. Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we plan to invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing cash accounts, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities and/or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. or U.K. government.
 
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DILUTION
Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2023 was $243.2 million, or $8.10 per ordinary share, equivalent to $8.10 per ADS. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the number of ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2023. Dilution with respect to net tangible book value per ADS represents the difference between the amount per ADS or non-voting ordinary share paid by purchasers of ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this offering and the net tangible book value per ordinary share immediately after this offering.
After giving effect to the sale of       ADSs and       non-voting ordinary shares in this offering at a public offering price of $     per ADS or non-voting ordinary share (assuming the re-designation of all non-voting ordinary shares sold in this offering as       ordinary shares), and after deducting estimated offering commissions and offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2023 would have been approximately $     million, or $     per ordinary share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $      per ADS or ordinary share to existing shareholders and holders of our ADSs and immediate dilution of $    per ADS or ordinary share to investors purchasing ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this offering at the public offering price. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:
Public offering price per ADS or non-voting ordinary share
$       
Net tangible book value per ADS or ordinary share as of March 31, 2023
$ 8.10
Increase in net tangible book value per ADS or ordinary share attributable to new investors purchasing ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this
offering
$       
As adjusted net tangible book value per ADS or ordinary share as of March 31, 2023, after giving effect to this offering
Dilution per ADS or ordinary share to new investors purchasing ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this offering
$
If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase up to           additional ADSs at the public offering price of $      per ADS, the as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering would be $      per ordinary share, representing an increase in net tangible book value of $      per ADS or ordinary share to existing shareholders and holders of our ADS and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $      per ADS to investors purchasing our ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this offering at the public offering price.
The above discussion and table are based on 30,031,758 ordinary shares and zero non-voting ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2023, and excludes:

7,297,630 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of share options as of March 31, 2023 at a weighted average exercise price of $23.68 per share;

452,576 shares reserved for the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted share units;

854,510 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans as of March 31, 2023, as well as any future increases in the number of ordinary shares reserved for issuable under such plans;

1,200,413 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our employee share purchase plan as of March 31, 2023, as well as any future increases in the number of ordinary shares reserved for issuance under such plan; and

520,000 ordinary shares sold pursuant to our at-the-market offering program between March 31, 2023 and the date of this prospectus supplement.
To the extent that options or restricted stock units outstanding as of March 31, 2023 have vested or have been or may be exercised or other ordinary shares have or may be issued, investors purchasing our ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this offering may experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we
 
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believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our shareholders.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF THE NON-VOTING ORDINARY SHARES
Pursuant to the terms of issue of the non-voting ordinary shares approved by our board of directors, the non-voting ordinary shares have the same rights and restrictions as the ordinary shares and otherwise rank pari passu in all respects with the ordinary shares except for the following:

a holder of non-voting ordinary shares shall, in relation to the non-voting ordinary shares held by him, have no right to receive notice of, or to attend or vote at, any general meeting of shareholders save in relation to a variation of class rights of the non-voting ordinary shares;

the non-voting ordinary shares shall be re-designated as ordinary shares by our board of directors, or a duly authorized committee or representative thereof, upon receipt of a re-designation notice and otherwise subject to the terms and conditions set out in the terms of issue. A holder of non-voting ordinary shares shall not be entitled to have any non-voting ordinary shares re-designated as ordinary shares where such re-designation would result in such holder thereof beneficially owning (for purposes of section 13(d) of the Exchange Act), when aggregated with “affiliates” and “group” members with whom such holder is required to aggregate beneficial ownership for purposes of section 13(d) of the Exchange Act, in excess of 9.99 percent of any class of our securities registered under the Exchange Act (which percentage may be increased or decreased on a holder-by-holder basis subject to the provisions set out in the terms of issue); and

the non-voting ordinary shares shall be re-designated as ordinary shares automatically upon transfer of a non-voting ordinary share by its holder to any person that is not an “affiliate” or “group” member with whom such holder is required to aggregate beneficial ownership for purposes of section 13(d) of the Exchange Act. This automatic re-designation shall only be in respect of the non-voting ordinary shares that are subject to such transfer.
 
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UNDERWRITERS
We and the underwriters named below have entered into an underwriting agreement with respect to the ADSs and non-voting ordinary shares being offered. Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, Jefferies LLC and SVB Securities LLC are the representatives of the underwriters. Subject to the terms and conditions of the underwriting agreement, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each underwriter has severally agreed to purchase, at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, the number of ADSs listed next to its name in the following table:
Underwriters
Number of
ADSs
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
       
Jefferies LLC
SVB Securities LLC
Total
The underwriters are committed to take and pay for all of the ADSs being offered, if any are taken, other than the ADSs covered by the option described below unless and until this option is exercised. The underwriting agreement also provides that if an underwriter defaults, the purchase commitments of non-defaulting underwriters may also be increased or the offering may be terminated.
The underwriters have an option to buy up to an additional                 ADSs from us to cover sales by the underwriters of a greater number of ADSs than the total number set forth in the table above. They may exercise that option for 30 days. If any ADSs are purchased pursuant to this option, the underwriters will severally purchase ADSs in approximately the same proportion as set forth in the table above.
In addition, we are offering pursuant to this prospectus supplement        non-voting ordinary shares, in lieu of ADSs, to investors that so choose. The underwriters have agreed to procure purchasers for the non-voting ordinary shares, however such purchasers will subscribe for the non-voting ordinary shares directly from the Company. To the extent that purchasers are not procured for all of the non-voting ordinary shares and/or any such investor does not make payment for all or any portion of such non-voting ordinary shares, the underwriters have a firm contractual commitment to purchase an amount equal to such non-voting ordinary shares in the form of, in the underwriters’ sole discretion, either non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs. While the non-voting ordinary shares are being sold directly to such purchasers, the offering was negotiated by the underwriters and the determination of the offering price took place during a bookbuilding process.
The following table shows the per ADS or non-voting ordinary share and total underwriting discounts and commissions to be paid to the underwriters by us. Such amounts are shown assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase up to additional ADSs from us.
No Exercise
Full Exercise
Per ADS
$ $
Per non-voting ordinary share
Total
$ $
ADSs sold by the underwriters to the public will initially be offered at the public offering price set forth on the cover of this prospectus. Any ADSs sold by the underwriters to securities dealers may be sold at a discount of up to $      per ADS from the initial public offering price. After the initial offering of the ADSs, the representatives may change the offering price and the other selling terms. The offering of the ADSs by the underwriters is subject to receipt and acceptance and subject to the underwriters’ right to reject any order in whole or in part. Sales of ADSs made outside of the United States may be made by affiliates of the underwriters.
 
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A prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus in electronic format may be made available on the web sites maintained by one or more underwriters, or selling group members, if any, participating in the offering. The underwriters may agree to allocate a number of ADSs to underwriters and selling group members for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Internet distributions will be allocated by the representatives to underwriters and selling group members that may make internet distributions on the same basis as other allocations.
We and our executive officers and directors have agreed with the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions, not to dispose of or hedge any of our or their equity securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable for equity securities during the period from the date of this prospectus supplement continuing through the date 60 days after the date of this prospectus supplement (the “lock-up period”), except with the prior written consent of the representatives.
Among other exceptions and subject to certain conditions, the foregoing restrictions will not apply to (i) certain transfers by gift, (ii) certain transfers to a trust for the direct or indirect benefit of an executive officer or director or immediate family thereof, (iii) certain transfers by will or intestate succession, (iv) transfers by operation of law pursuant to a qualified domestic order or in connection with a divorce settlement, (v) transfers to us to satisfy tax withholding obligations pursuant to our equity incentive plans or arrangements, (vi) entry into and certain transfers pursuant to a trading plan meeting the requirements of Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, and (vii) transfers with the prior written consent of the representatives on behalf of the underwriters.
Our ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “BCYC.” Our non-voting ordinary shares will not be listed for trading on Nasdaq or any other securities exchange.
In connection with the offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell ADSs in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, stabilizing transactions and purchases to cover positions created by short sales. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of ADSs than they are required to purchase in the offering, and a short position represents the amount of such sales that have not been covered by subsequent purchases. A “covered short position” is a short position that is not greater than the amount of additional ADSs for which the underwriters’ option described above may be exercised. The underwriters may cover any covered short position by either exercising their option to purchase additional ADSs or purchasing ADSs in the open market. In determining the source of ADSs to cover the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of ADSs available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase additional ADSs pursuant to the option described above. “Naked” short sales are any short sales that create a short position greater than the amount of additional ADSs for which the option described above may be exercised. The underwriters must cover any such naked short position by purchasing ADSs in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the ADSs in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of various bids for or purchases of ADSs made by the underwriters in the open market prior to the completion of the offering.
The underwriters may also impose a penalty bid. This occurs when a particular underwriter repays to the underwriters a portion of the underwriting discount received by it because the representatives have repurchased ADSs sold by or for the account of such underwriter in stabilizing or short covering transactions.
Purchases to cover a short position and stabilizing transactions, as well as other purchases by the underwriters for their own accounts, may have the effect of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our ADSs, and together with the imposition of the penalty bid, may stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the ADSs. As a result, the price of the ADSs may be higher than the price that otherwise might exist in the open market. The underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on The Nasdaq Global Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.
We estimate that the expenses payable by us in this offering, excluding the underwriting discounts and commissions, will be approximately $      . We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters up to
 
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an aggregate of $20,000 for fees and expenses incurred by them in connection with any required filings with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) and determining the offering’s compliance with FINRA’s rules. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5110, these reimbursed fees and expenses are deemed underwriting compensation for this offering.
We have agreed to indemnify the several underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
The underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include sales and trading, commercial and investment banking, advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, market making, brokerage and other financial and non-financial activities and services. Certain of the underwriters and their respective affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, a variety of these services to the issuer and to persons and entities with relationships with the issuer, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, Jefferies LLC, one of the underwriters, and/or its affiliates are beneficial owners of approximately 6.48% of our outstanding share capital.
In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their respective affiliates, officers, directors and employees may purchase, sell or hold a broad array of investments and actively traded securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps and other financial instruments for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and trading activities may involve or relate to assets, securities or instruments of the issuer (directly, as collateral securing other obligations or otherwise) or persons and entities with relationships with the issuer. The underwriters and their respective affiliates may also communicate independent investment recommendations, market color or trading ideas or publish or express independent research views in respect of such assets, securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they should acquire, long and/or short positions in such assets, securities and instruments.
Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.
European Economic Area
In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area (each a “Relevant Member State”), no ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares have been offered or will be offered pursuant to the offering to the public in that Relevant Member State prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to the ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares which has been approved by the competent authority in that Relevant Member State or, where appropriate, approved in another Relevant Member State and notified to the competent authority in that Relevant Member State, all in accordance with the EU Prospectus Regulation, except that offers of ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares may be made to the public in that Relevant Member State at any time under the following exemptions under the EU Prospectus Regulation:

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined under Article 2 of the EU Prospectus Regulation;

to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined under Article 2 of the EU Prospectus Regulation), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the underwriters for any such offer; or
 
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in any other circumstances falling within Article 1(4) of the EU Prospectus Regulation,
provided that no such offer of ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares shall require us or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the EU Prospectus Regulation or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the EU Prospectus Regulation. Each person who initially acquires any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed to and with us and each of the underwriters and their affiliates that it is a “qualified investor” within the meaning of Article 2(e) of the EU Prospectus Regulation.
In the case of any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares being offered to a financial intermediary as that term is used in the EU Prospectus Regulation, each such financial intermediary will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed that the ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares acquired by it in the offering have not been acquired on a non-discretionary basis on behalf of, nor have they been acquired with a view to their offer or resale to, persons in circumstances which may give rise to an offer of any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares to the public other than their offer or resale in a Relevant Member State to qualified investors as so defined or in circumstances in which the prior consent of the underwriters have been obtained to each such proposed offer or resale.
For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to public” in relation to any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares, and the expression “EU Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129, as may be amended from time to time.
United Kingdom
In relation to the United Kingdom, no ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares have been offered or will be offered pursuant to the offering to the public in the United Kingdom prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to the ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares which has been approved by the Financial Conduct Authority in the United Kingdom in accordance with the U.K. Prospectus Regulation and the FSMA, except that offers of ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares may be made to the public in the United Kingdom at any time under the following exemptions under the U.K. Prospectus Regulation and the FSMA:
a)   to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined under Article 2 of the U.K. Prospectus Regulation;
b)   to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined under Article 2 of the U.K. Prospectus Regulation), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the underwriters for any such offer; or
c)   in any other circumstances falling within section 86 of the FSMA,
provided that no such offer of ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares shall require us or any underwriter or any of their affiliates to publish a prospectus pursuant to Section 85 of the FSMA or Article 3 of the U.K. Prospectus Regulation or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the U.K. Prospectus Regulation. Each person in the United Kingdom who initially acquires any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed to and with us and each of the underwriters and their affiliates that it is a “qualified investor” within the meaning of the U.K. Prospectus Regulation.
In the case of any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares being offered to a financial intermediary as that term is used in Article 5(1) of the U.K. Prospectus Regulation, each such financial intermediary will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed that the ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares acquired by it in the offer have not been acquired on a non-discretionary basis on behalf of, nor have they been acquired with a view to their offer or resale to, persons in circumstances which may give rise to an offer to the public other than their offer or resale in the United Kingdom to qualified
 
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investors, in circumstances in which the prior consent of the underwriters has been obtained to each such proposed offer or resale.
For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in the United Kingdom means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares, the expression “U.K. Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, as amended, and the expression “FSMA” means the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000.
In the United Kingdom, this prospectus and any other material in relation to the ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares described herein, is being distributed only to, and is directed only at, and any offer subsequently made may only be directed at persons who are “qualified investors” ​(as defined in the U.K. Prospectus Regulation) (i) who have professional experience in the matters relating to investments falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended, or the Order; and/or (ii) who are high net worth companies falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order and other persons to whom it may lawfully be communicated or caused to be communicated (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”).
This document and its contents are confidential and should not be distributed, published or reproduced (in whole or in part) or disclosed by recipients to any other persons in the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, this document is directed only at relevant persons and must not be acted on or relied on by persons who are not relevant persons. Any investment or investment activity to which this document relates is available in the United Kingdom to relevant persons and will be engaged in only with relevant persons.
Canada
The securities may be sold in Canada only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions, and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the securities must be made in accordance with an exemption form, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.
Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.
Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.
Hong Kong
The securities may not be offered or sold in Hong Kong by means of any document other than (i) in circumstances which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32 of the Laws of Hong Kong), or the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, or which do not constitute an invitation to the public within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong), or the Securities and Futures Ordinance, or (ii) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made thereunder, or (iii) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, and no advertisement, invitation or document relating to the
 
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securities may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to securities which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” in Hong Kong as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made thereunder.
Singapore
This prospectus has not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the securities may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the securities be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor (as defined under Section 4A of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore, or the SFA,) under Section 274 of the SFA, (ii) to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA, in each case subject to conditions set forth in the SFA.
Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor, the securities (as defined in Section 239(1) of the SFA) of that corporation shall not be transferable for 6 months after that corporation has acquired the securities under Section 275 of the SFA except: (1) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA), (2) where such transfer arises from an offer in that corporation’s securities pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, (3) where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer, (4) where the transfer is by operation of law, (5) as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA, or (6) as specified in Regulation 32 of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Shares and Debentures) Regulations 2005 of Singapore, or Regulation 32.
Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an accredited investor, the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferable for 6 months after that trust has acquired the securities under Section 275 of the SFA except: (1) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA), (2) where such transfer arises from an offer that is made on terms that such rights or interest are acquired at a consideration of not less than S$200,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) for each transaction (whether such amount is to be paid for in cash or by exchange of securities or other assets), (3) where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer, (4) where the transfer is by operation of law, (5) as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA, or (6) as specified in Regulation 32.
Solely for the purposes of its obligations pursuant to Section 309B of the SFA, we have determined, and hereby notify all relevant persons (as defined in the CMP Regulations 2018), that the shares are “prescribed capital markets products” ​(as defined in the CMP Regulations 2018) and Excluded Investment Products (as defined in MAS Notice SFA 04-N12: Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products).
Japan
The securities have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan (Act No. 25 of 1948, as amended), or the FIEA. The securities may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of any resident of Japan (including
 
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any person resident in Japan or any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan) or to others for reoffering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of any resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of the FIEA and otherwise in compliance with any relevant laws and regulations of Japan.
Australia
No placement document, prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document has been lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, or ASIC, in relation to the offering. This offering document does not constitute a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act 2001, or Corporations Act, and does not purport to include the information required for a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act.
Any offer in Australia of the securities may only be made to persons, or the “Exempt Investors, who are “sophisticated investors” ​(within the meaning of section 708(8) of the Corporations Act), “professional investors” ​(within the meaning of section 708(11) of the Corporations Act) or otherwise pursuant to one or more exemptions contained in section 708 of the Corporations Act so that it is lawful to offer the securities without disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act.
The securities applied for by Exempt Investors in Australia must not be offered for sale in Australia in the period of 12 months after the date of allotment under the offering, except in circumstances where disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act would not be required pursuant to an exemption under section 708 of the Corporations Act or otherwise or where the offer is pursuant to a disclosure document which complies with Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act. Any person acquiring securities must observe such Australian on-sale restrictions.
This offering document contains general information only and does not take account of the investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person. It does not contain any securities recommendations or financial product advice. Before making an investment decision, investors need to consider whether the information in this offering document is appropriate to their needs, objectives and circumstances, and, if necessary, seek expert advice on those matters.
Dubai International Financial Centre
This offering document relates to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Offered Securities Rules of the Dubai Financial Services Authority, or DFSA. This offering document is intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Offered Securities Rules of the DFSA. It must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus nor taken steps to verify the information set forth in this prospectus and has no responsibility for the offering document. The securities to which this offering document relates may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the securities offered should conduct their own due diligence on the securities. If you do not understand the contents of this offering document you should consult an authorized financial advisor.
Switzerland
We have not and will not register with the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority, or FINMA, as a foreign collective investment scheme pursuant to Article 119 of the Federal Act on Collective Investment Scheme of 23 June 2006, as amended, or CISA, and accordingly the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus have not and will not be approved, and may not be licenseable, with FINMA. Therefore, the securities have not been authorized for distribution by FINMA as a foreign collective investment scheme pursuant to Article 119 CISA and the securities offered hereby may not be offered to the public (as this term is defined in Article 3 CISA) in or from Switzerland. The securities may solely be offered to “qualified investors,” as this term is defined in Article 10 CISA, and in the circumstances set out in Article 3 of the Ordinance on Collective Investment Scheme of 22 November 2006, as amended, or CISO,, such that there is no public offer. Investors, however, do not
 
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benefit from protection under CISA or CISO or supervision by FINMA. This prospectus and any other materials relating to the securities are strictly personal and confidential to each offeree and do not constitute an offer to any other person. This prospectus may only be used by those qualified investors to whom it has been handed out in connection with the offer described in this prospectus and may neither directly or indirectly be distributed or made available to any person or entity other than its recipients. It may not be used in connection with any other offer and shall in particular not be copied and/or distributed to the public in Switzerland or from Switzerland. This prospectus does not constitute an issue prospectus as that term is understood pursuant to Article 652a and/or 1156 of the Swiss Federal Code of Obligations. We have not applied for a listing of the securities on the SIX Swiss Exchange or any other regulated securities market in Switzerland, and consequently, the information presented in this prospectus does not necessarily comply with the information standards set out in the listing rules of the SIX Swiss Exchange and corresponding prospectus schemes annexed to the listing rules of the SIX Swiss Exchange.
Israel
This document does not constitute a prospectus under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, or the Securities Law, and has not been filed with or approved by the Israel Securities Authority. In the State of Israel, this document is being distributed only to, and is directed only at, and any offer of the securities is directed only at, investors listed in the first addendum, or the Addendum, to the Israeli Securities Law, consisting primarily of joint investment in trust funds, provident funds, insurance companies, banks, portfolio managers, investment advisors, members of the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, underwriters, venture capital funds, entities with equity in excess of NIS 50 million and “qualified individuals,” each as defined in the Addendum (as it may be amended from time to time), collectively referred to as qualified investors (in each case purchasing for their own account or, where permitted under the Addendum, for the accounts of their clients who are investors listed in the Addendum). Qualified investors will be required to submit written confirmation that they fall within the scope of the Addendum, are aware of the meaning of same and agree to it.
 
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CERTAIN MATERIAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following summary contains a description of certain material U.S. federal and U.K. income tax considerations of the ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares or ADSs. This summary should not be considered a comprehensive description of all the tax considerations that may be relevant to the decision to acquire our ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this offering.
Certain Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders
The following is a description of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations of owning and disposing of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs to U.S. Holders (as defined below) that acquire our ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares in this offering and hold our ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares as “capital assets” ​(generally, property held for investment) under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. It is not a comprehensive description of all tax considerations that may be relevant to a particular person’s decision to acquire securities. This discussion applies only to a U.S. Holder that is an initial purchaser of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs pursuant to this offering. This discussion is based on the Code, final, temporary and proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, administrative pronouncements and judicial decisions, all as of the date hereof, changes to any of which may affect the tax considerations described herein — possibly with retroactive effect. No ruling has been sought from the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, with respect to any U.S. federal income tax considerations described below, and there can be no assurance that the IRS or a court will not take a contrary position. This discussion, moreover, does not address any U.S. federal non-income tax considerations, including estate or gift tax considerations, the alternative minimum tax or the special tax accounting rules under Section 451(b) of the Code, or any state, local or non-U.S. tax considerations, relating to the ownership or disposition of our ADSs or non-voting ordinary shares. In addition, it does not describe all of the tax consequences that may be relevant in light of a U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances, or tax considerations applicable to U.S. Holders subject to special rules, such as:

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

persons that hold our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs as part of a hedging transaction, “straddle,” wash sale, conversion transaction or integrated transaction or persons entering into a constructive sale with respect to our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs;

persons who use a non-U.S. dollar currency as their “functional currency” for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

brokers, dealers or traders in securities, commodities or currencies;

retirement plans;

tax-exempt entities or government organizations;

S corporations, partnerships, or other entities or arrangements classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

regulated investment companies or real estate investment trusts;

persons holding our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs in connection with a trade or business, permanent establishment, or fixed base outside the United States;

persons who own (directly or indirectly, and actually or through attribution) 10% or more of our stock (by vote or value).
If an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. Partnerships holding our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs and partners in such partnerships are encouraged to consult their tax advisers as to the particular U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding and disposing of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs.
 
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For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs who is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:
(i)
an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;
(ii)
a corporation, or other entity taxable as a corporation, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state therein or the District of Columbia;
(iii)
an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
(iv)
a trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) the trust has a valid election in effect to be treated as a U.S. person under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations.
The discussion below with respect to our ADSs assumes that the representations contained in the deposit agreement are true and that the obligations in the deposit agreement and any related agreement will be complied with in accordance with their terms. Generally, a holder of an ADS should be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as holding the ordinary shares represented by the ADS. Accordingly, no gain or loss should be recognized upon an exchange of ADSs for ordinary shares. The remainder of this discussion assumes that a U.S. Holder of our ADSs will be treated in this manner.
PERSONS CONSIDERING AN INVESTMENT IN OUR NON-VOTING ORDINARY SHARES OR ADSs SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS AS TO THE PARTICULAR TAX CONSEQUENCES APPLICABLE TO THEM RELATING TO THE OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR NON-VOTING ORDINARY SHARES OR ADSs, INCLUDING THE APPLICABILITY OF U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL AND NON-U.S. TAX LAWS.
Taxation of Distributions
Subject to the discussion below under “PFIC Considerations,” distributions paid on our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs, other than certain pro rata distributions of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs, will generally be treated as dividends to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles). Because we may not calculate our earnings and profits under U.S. federal income tax principles, we expect that distributions generally will be reported to U.S. Holders as dividends. Subject to applicable limitations, dividends paid to certain non-corporate U.S. Holders may be taxable at preferential rates applicable to “qualified dividend income” if we are a “qualified foreign corporation” and certain holding period and other requirements are met. However, the qualified dividend income treatment may not apply if we are treated as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, as discussed below, with respect to the U.S. Holder. Non-corporate U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the availability of these reduced tax rates in their particular circumstances.
The amount of the dividend will be treated as foreign-source dividend income to U.S. Holders and will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction generally available to U.S. corporations under the Code with respect to dividends received from domestic corporations. Dividends will generally be included in a U.S. Holder’s income on the date of the U.S. Holder’s receipt of the dividend. The amount of any dividend income paid in foreign currency will be the U.S. dollar amount calculated by reference to the exchange rate in effect on the date of actual or constructive receipt, regardless of whether the payment is in fact converted into U.S. dollars. If the dividend is converted into U.S. dollars on the date of receipt, a U.S. Holder should not be required to recognize foreign currency gain or loss in respect of the dividend income. A U.S. Holder may have foreign currency gain or loss if the dividend is converted into U.S. dollars after the date of receipt. Such gain or loss generally will be treated as U.S.-source ordinary income or loss. The amount of any distribution of property other than cash (and other than certain pro rata distributions of our shares or ADSs or rights to acquire our shares or ADSs) will be the fair market value of such property on the date of distribution.
 
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For foreign tax credit limitation purposes, our dividends generally will be treated as passive category income. Because no U.K. income taxes will be withheld from dividends on our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs, there will be no creditable foreign taxes associated with any dividends that a U.S. Holder will receive. The rules governing foreign tax credits are complex and U.S. Holders should therefore consult their tax advisers regarding the effect of the receipt of dividends for foreign tax credit limitation purposes.
To the extent a distribution with respect to our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs exceed our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under United States federal income tax principles, the distribution will be treated, first, as a tax-free return of the U.S. Holder’s investment, up to the holder’s adjusted tax basis in its non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs, and, thereafter, as capital gain, which is subject to the tax treatment described below under “Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Non-voting Ordinary Shares and ADSs.”
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Non-voting Ordinary Shares and ADSs
Subject to the discussion below under “PFIC Considerations,” gain or loss realized on the sale or other taxable disposition of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs will be capital gain or loss, and generally will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder’s holding period in our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs exceeds one year. The amount of the gain or loss will equal the difference between the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs disposed of and the amount realized on the disposition, in each case as determined in U.S. dollars. This gain or loss will generally be U.S.-source gain or loss for foreign tax credit purposes. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
If the consideration received by a U.S. Holder is not paid in U.S. dollars, the amount realized will be the U.S. dollar value of the payment received determined by reference to the spot rate of exchange on the date of the sale or other disposition. However, if the ADSs are treated as traded on an “established securities market” and you are either a cash basis taxpayer or an accrual basis taxpayer that has made a special election (which must be applied consistently from year to year and cannot be changed without the consent of the IRS), you will determine the U.S. dollar value of the amount realized in a non U.S. dollar currency by translating the amount realized at the spot rate of exchange on the settlement date of the sale. If you are an accrual basis taxpayer that is not eligible to or does not elect to determine the amount realized using the spot rate on the settlement date, you will recognize foreign currency gain or loss to the extent of any difference between the U.S. dollar amount realized on the date of sale or disposition and the U.S. dollar value of the currency received at the spot rate on the settlement date.
PFIC Considerations
If we were classified as a PFIC in any taxable year, a U.S. Holder would be subject to special rules generally intended to reduce or eliminate any benefits from the deferral of U.S. federal income tax that a U.S. Holder could derive from investing in a non-U.S. company that does not distribute all of its earnings on a current basis.
We will be classified as a PFIC for any taxable year in which, after applying certain look-through rules, either:

at least 75% of our gross income is passive income (such as interest income); or

at least 50% of the value of our gross assets (determined on the basis of a quarterly average) is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income.
If we own, directly or indirectly, 25% or more (by value) of the equity of another corporation, we will be treated as owning a proportionate share of the assets and earning a proportionate share of the income of such corporation.
Based on our analysis of our income, assets, activities and market capitalization, we believe that we were, more likely than not, not a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2022. We have not
 
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yet determined our PFIC status for the current taxable year. A separate determination must be made after the close of each taxable year as to whether we are a PFIC for that year. As a result, our PFIC status may change from year to year, and we may be classified as a PFIC currently or in the future.
The total value of our assets for purposes of the asset test generally will be calculated based upon the market price of our shares and ADSs, which may fluctuate considerably. Fluctuations in the market price of our shares or ADSs may result in our being a PFIC for any taxable year. Because of the uncertainties involved in establishing our PFIC status, there can be no assurance regarding whether we currently are treated as a PFIC, or may be treated as a PFIC in the future. Our U.S. counsel expresses no opinion regarding our conclusions or our expectations regarding our PFIC status.
If we were classified as a PFIC in any year with respect to which a U.S. Holder owns our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs, we would continue to be treated as a PFIC with respect to such U.S. Holder in all succeeding years during which the U.S. Holder owns the non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs, regardless of whether we remain a PFIC unless (i) we ceased to be a PFIC and the U.S. Holder made a “deemed sale” election under the PFIC rules, or (ii) the U.S. Holder made a qualified electing fund election, or QEF Election, with respect to all taxable years during such U.S. Holder’s holding period in which we are a PFIC. If the “deemed sale” election were made, a U.S. Holder would be deemed to have sold our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs the U.S. Holder holds at their fair market value and any gain from such deemed sale would be subject to the rules described below. After the deemed sale election, so long as we do not become a PFIC in a subsequent taxable year, the U.S. Holder’s non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs with respect to which such election was made would not be treated as shares in a PFIC, and the U.S. Holder would not be subject to the rules described below with respect to any “excess distribution” the U.S. Holder receives from us or any gain from an actual sale or other disposition of the non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors as to the possibility and consequences of making a deemed sale election if we cease to be a PFIC and such election becomes available.
Excess Distribution Rules
For each taxable year in which we were treated as a PFIC with respect to a U.S. Holder, such U.S. Holder would be subject to the “excess distribution rules” with respect to any “excess distribution” such U.S. Holder receives and any gain such U.S. Holder recognizes from a sale or other disposition (including, under certain circumstances, a pledge) of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs. The excess distributions rules do not apply to a U.S. Holder that makes a QEF Election or a mark-to-market election, both as discussed below.
Under the excess distribution rules, distributions a U.S. Holder receives in a taxable year that are greater than 125% of the average annual distributions the U.S. Holder received during the shorter of the three preceding taxable years or the U.S. Holder’s holding period for our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs would be treated as an excess distribution. Under these special tax rules:

the excess distribution and any gain from the disposition of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs would be allocated ratably over a U.S. Holder’s holding period of such shares or ADSs;

the amount allocated to the current taxable year, and any taxable year prior to the first taxable year in which we became a PFIC, would be treated as ordinary income and would not be eligible for the favorable tax rates applicable to qualified dividend income or long-term capital gains;

the amount allocated to each other year would be subject to the highest tax rate in effect for that year and the interest charge generally applicable to underpayments of tax will be imposed on the resulting tax attributable to each such year.
The tax liability for amounts allocated to years prior to the year of disposition or “excess distribution” may not be offset by any net operating losses for such years, and gains (but not losses) realized on the sale of the non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs may not be treated as capital gains, even if a U.S. Holder holds the non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs as capital assets.
 
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In addition, if we were a PFIC, a U.S. Holder would generally be subject to similar rules with respect to distributions we receive from, and our dispositions of the stock of, any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries that also are PFICs, as if such distributions were indirectly received by, and/or dispositions were indirectly carried out by, such U.S. Holder. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the PFIC rules to our subsidiaries.
QEF Election
If we were a PFIC, the rules above would not apply to a U.S. Holder that makes a QEF Election with respect to such U.S. Holder’s non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs. If a U.S. Holder were to make an effective QEF Election, the U.S. Holder would be required to include in gross income each year, whether or not we make distributions, as capital gains, such U.S. Holder’s pro rata share of our net capital gains and, as ordinary income, such U.S. Holder’s pro rata share of our earnings in excess of our net capital gains. The electing U.S. Holder’s basis in our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs would be increased to reflect taxed but undistributed income. Distributions of income that had been taxed previously would result in a corresponding reduction of basis in the non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs and would not be taxed again when distributed to such U.S. Holder.
A U.S. Holder makes a QEF Election generally by attaching a completed IRS Form 8621 to a timely filed U.S. federal income tax return for the year beginning with which the QEF Election is to be effective (taking into account any extensions). A QEF Election can be revoked only with the consent of the IRS. If we determine that we are a PFIC for this year or any future taxable year, we currently expect that we would provide the information necessary for U.S. Holders to make a QEF Election, but there can be no assurance we will do so.
Mark-to-Market Election
A U.S. Holder of our ADSs also can avoid the application of the excess distribution rules by making a mark-to-market election with respect to the ADSs, provided that the ADSs qualify as “marketable shares.” ADSs will be marketable if they are “regularly traded” on certain U.S. stock exchanges or on a foreign stock exchange that meet certain conditions. For these purposes, ADSs will be considered regularly traded during any calendar year during which they are traded, other than in de minimis quantities, on at least 15 days during each calendar quarter. Any trades that have as their principal purpose meeting this requirement will be disregarded. Our ADSs are listed on Nasdaq, which is a qualified exchange for these purposes. Consequently, if our ADSs remain listed on Nasdaq and are regularly traded, and you are a U.S. Holder of our ADSs, we expect the mark-to-market election would be available to you if we were a PFIC. Our non-voting ordinary shares, however, are not expected to qualify as “marketable shares.” Each U.S. Holder should consult its tax advisor as to whether a mark-to-market election is available or advisable with respect to our ADSs.
A U.S. Holder that makes a mark-to-market election with respect to our ADSs must include in ordinary income for each year an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the ADSs at the close of the taxable year over the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the ADSs. An electing U.S. Holder may also claim an ordinary loss deduction for the excess, if any, of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted basis in the ADSs over the fair market value of the ADSs at the close of the taxable year, but only to the extent of any net mark-to-market gains included in income by such U.S. Holder for prior years that have not previously been deducted as a mark-to-market loss. The U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the ADSs would be adjusted to reflect any income or loss resulting from the mark-to-market election. Gains from an actual sale or other disposition of the ADSs would be treated as ordinary income, and any losses incurred on a sale or other disposition of the ADSs will be treated as an ordinary loss to the extent of any net mark-to-market gains for prior years. In addition, any dividend distributions in respect of our ADSs to a U.S. Holder that has made a mark-to-market election with respect to such ADSs would not be eligible for the favorable tax rates applicable to qualified dividend income.
Once made, the mark-to-market election cannot be revoked without the consent of the IRS, unless the ADSs cease to be marketable shares. If a U.S. Holder made a mark-to-market election in respect of the ADSs and we ceased to be classified as a PFIC, the U.S. Holder would not be required to take into account the gain or loss described above during any period that we are not classified as a PFIC.
 
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However, a mark-to-market election generally cannot be made for equity interests in any lower-tier PFICs that we own, unless shares of such lower-tier PFIC are themselves “marketable.” As a result, even if a U.S. Holder validly makes a mark-to-market election with respect to our ADSs, the U.S. Holder may continue to be subject to the PFIC rules (described above) with respect to its indirect interest in any of our subsidiaries that are treated as an equity interest in a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors to determine whether any of these elections would be available and if so, what the consequences of the alternative treatments would be in their particular circumstances.
Unless otherwise provided by the U.S. Treasury, each U.S. shareholder of a PFIC is required to file an annual report containing such information as the U.S. Treasury may require. A U.S. Holder’s failure to file the annual report will cause the statute of limitations for such U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax return to remain open with regard to the items required to be included in such report until three years after the U.S. Holder files the annual report, and, unless such failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, the statute of limitations for the U.S. Holder’s entire U.S. federal income tax return will remain open during such period. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the requirements of filing such information returns under these rules.
WE STRONGLY URGE YOU TO CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE IMPACT OF YOUR INVESTMENT IN OUR NON-VOTING ORDINARY SHARES OR ADSs, AS WELL AS THE APPLICATION OF THE PFIC RULES TO YOUR INVESTMENT IN OUR NON-VOTING ORDINARY SHARES OR ADSs, IF WE WERE TO BE A PFIC.
Additional Tax on Net Investment Income
Individuals, estates, and certain trusts whose income exceeds certain thresholds will be required to pay a 3.8% Medicare surtax on “net investment income,” which includes, among other items of income, dividend income on and net gain from the disposition of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
Payments of dividends and sales proceeds that are made within the United States or through certain U.S.-related financial intermediaries generally are subject to information reporting, and may be subject to backup withholding, unless (i) the U.S. Holder is a corporation or other exempt recipient or (ii) in the case of backup withholding, the U.S. Holder provides a correct taxpayer identification number and certifies that it is not subject to backup withholding on a duly executed IRS Form W-9 or otherwise establishes an exemption.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. The amount of any backup withholding from a payment to a U.S. Holder will be allowed as a credit against the U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability and may entitle the U.S. Holder to a refund, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Information with Respect to Foreign Financial Assets
Certain U.S. Holders who are individuals (and, under U.S. Treasury Regulations, certain entities) may be required to report information relating to our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs, subject to certain exceptions (including an exception for our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs held in accounts maintained by certain U.S. financial institutions), by filing IRS Form 8938 (Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Asset) with their U.S. federal income tax return. Such U.S. Holders who fail to timely furnish the required information may be subject to a penalty.
Additionally, if a U.S. Holder does not file the required information, the statute of limitations with respect to tax returns of the U.S. Holder to which the information relates may not close until three years after such information is filed. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding their reporting obligations with respect to their ownership and disposition of our non-voting ordinary shares or ADSs.
 
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U.K. Taxation
The following is intended as a general guide to current U.K. tax law and HM Revenue & Customs, or HMRC, practice applying as at the date of this prospectus supplement (both of which are subject to change at any time, possibly with retrospective effect) relating to the holding of ADSs. It does not constitute legal or tax advice and does not purport to be a complete analysis of all U.K. tax considerations relating to the holding of ADSs, or all of the circumstances in which holders of ADSs may benefit from an exemption or relief from U.K. taxation. It is written on the basis that the company does not (and will not) directly or indirectly derive 75% or more of its qualifying asset value from U.K. land, and that the company is and remains solely resident in the United Kingdom for tax purposes and will therefore be subject to the U.K. tax regime and not the U.S. tax regime save as set out above under “Certain Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders.”
Except to the extent that the position of non-U.K. resident persons is expressly referred to, this guide relates only to persons who are resident (and, in the case of individuals, domiciled or deemed domiciled and to whom split year treatment does not apply) for tax purposes solely in the United Kingdom and do not have a permanent establishment, branch, agency (or equivalent) or fixed base in any other jurisdiction with which the holding of the ADSs is connected, or U.K. Holders, who are absolute beneficial owners of the ADSs (where the ADSs are not held through an Individual Savings Account or a Self-Invested Personal Pension) and who hold the ADSs as investments.
This guide may not relate to certain classes of U.K. Holders, such as (but not limited to):

persons who are connected with the company;

financial institutions;

insurance companies;

charities or tax-exempt organizations;

collective investment schemes;

pension schemes;

market makers, intermediaries, brokers or dealers in securities;

persons who have (or are deemed to have) acquired their ADSs by virtue of an office or employment or who are or have been officers or employees of the company or any of its affiliates; and

individuals who are subject to U.K. taxation on a remittance basis.
The decision of the First-tier Tribunal (Tax Chamber) in HSBC Holdings PLC and The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation v HMRC (2012) cast some doubt on whether a holder of a depositary receipt is the beneficial owner of the underlying shares. However, based on published HMRC guidance we would expect that HMRC will regard a holder of ADSs as holding the beneficial interest in the underlying shares and therefore these paragraphs assume that a holder of ADSs is the beneficial owner of the underlying ordinary shares and any dividends paid in respect of the underlying ordinary shares (where the dividends are regarded for U.K. purposes as that person’s own income) for U.K. direct tax purposes.
THESE PARAGRAPHS ARE A SUMMARY OF CERTAIN U.K. TAX CONSIDERATIONS AND ARE INTENDED AS A GENERAL GUIDE ONLY. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT ALL HOLDERS OF ADSs OBTAIN ADVICE AS TO THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACQUISITION, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSAL OF THE ADSs IN THEIR OWN SPECIFIC CIRCUMSTANCES FROM THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS. IN PARTICULAR, NON-U.K. RESIDENT OR DOMICILED PERSONS ARE ADVISED TO CONSIDER THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF ANY RELEVANT DOUBLE TAXATION AGREEMENTS.
 
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Dividends
Withholding Tax
Dividends paid by the company will not be subject to any withholding or deduction for or on account of U.K. tax.
Income Tax
An individual U.K. Holder may, depending on his or her particular circumstances, be subject to U.K. tax on dividends received from the company. An individual holder of ADSs who is not resident for tax purposes in the United Kingdom should not be chargeable to U.K. income tax on dividends received from the company unless he or she carries on (whether solely or in partnership) a trade, profession or vocation in the United Kingdom through a branch or agency to which the ADSs are attributable. There are certain exceptions for trading in the United Kingdom through independent agents, such as some brokers and investment managers.
All dividends received by an individual U.K. Holder from us or from other sources will form part of that U.K. Holder’s total income for income tax purposes and will constitute the top slice of that income. A nil rate of income tax will apply to the first £1,000 of taxable dividend income received by the individual U.K. Holder in the tax year 2023/2024. Income within the nil rate band will be taken into account in determining whether income in excess of the £1,000 tax-free allowance falls within the basic rate, higher rate or additional rate tax bands. Dividend income in excess of the tax-free allowance will (subject to the availability of any income tax personal allowance) be taxed at 8.75% to the extent that the excess amount falls within the basic rate tax band, 33.75% to the extent that the excess amount falls within the higher rate tax band and 39.35% to the extent that the excess amount falls within the additional rate tax band. The annual tax-free dividend allowance will be reduced to £500 with effect from the tax year 2024-25.
Corporation Tax
A corporate holder of ADSs who is not resident for tax purposes in the United Kingdom should not be chargeable to U.K. corporation tax on dividends received from the company unless it carries on (whether solely or in partnership) a trade in the United Kingdom through a permanent establishment to which the ADSs are attributable.
Corporate U.K. Holders should not be subject to U.K. corporation tax on any dividend received from the company so long as the dividends qualify for exemption, which should be the case, although certain conditions must be met. If the conditions for the exemption are not satisfied, or such U.K. Holder elects for an otherwise exempt dividend to be taxable, U.K. corporation tax will be chargeable on the amount of any dividends (at the main rate of 25% for companies with profits in excess of £250,000, or the small profits rate of 19% for companies with profits of £50,000 or less, with marginal relief from the main rate available to companies with profits between £50,000 and £250,000, subject to meeting certain criteria).
Chargeable Gains
A disposal or deemed disposal of ADSs by a U.K. Holder may, depending on the U.K. Holder’s circumstances and subject to any available exemptions or reliefs (such as the annual exemption), give rise to a chargeable gain or an allowable loss for the purposes of U.K. capital gains tax and corporation tax on chargeable gains.
If an individual U.K. Holder who is subject to U.K. income tax at either the higher or the additional rate is liable to U.K. capital gains tax on the disposal of ADSs, the current applicable rate will be 20%. For an individual U.K. Holder who is subject to U.K. income tax at the basic rate and liable to U.K. capital gains tax on such disposal, the current applicable rate would be 10%, save to the extent that any capital gains when aggregated with the U.K. Holder’s other taxable income and gains in the relevant tax year exceed the unused basic rate tax band. In that case, the rate currently applicable to the excess would be 20%.
 
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If a corporate U.K. Holder becomes liable to U.K. corporation tax on the disposal (or deemed disposal) of ADSs, U.K. corporation tax would apply (at the main rate of 25% for companies with profits in excess of £250,000, or the small profits rate of 19% for companies with profits of £50,000 or less, with marginal relief from the main rate available to companies with profits between £50,000 and £250,000, subject to meeting certain criteria).
A holder of ADSs which is not resident for tax purposes in the United Kingdom should not normally be liable to U.K. capital gains tax or corporation tax on chargeable gains on a disposal (or deemed disposal) of ADSs, unless the person is carrying on (whether solely or in partnership) a trade, profession or vocation in the United Kingdom through a branch or agency (or, in the case of a corporate holder of ADSs, through a permanent establishment) to which the ADSs are attributable. However, an individual holder of ADSs who has ceased to be resident for tax purposes in the United Kingdom for a period of less than five years and who disposes of ADSs during that period may be liable on his or her return to the United Kingdom to U.K. tax on any capital gain realized (subject to any available exemption or relief).
Stamp Duty and Stamp Duty Reserve Tax
The discussion below relates to the holders of our ordinary shares or ADSs wherever resident, however it should be noted that (i) special rules may apply to certain persons such as market makers, brokers, dealers or intermediaries, and (ii) in respect of our ordinary shares, this discussion applies only to issues or transfers occurring on or before December 31, 2023 (for a discussion in respect of issues or transfers of our ordinary shares after that date, please see the paragraph below entitled “Issue or Transfers of Ordinary Shares from January 1, 2024”).
Issue of Ordinary Shares
No U.K. stamp duty or stamp duty reserve tax, or SDRT, is generally payable on the issue of the underlying ordinary shares in the company.
Transfers of Ordinary Shares
An unconditional agreement to transfer ordinary shares in certificated form will normally give rise to a charge to SDRT at the rate of 0.5% of the amount or value of the consideration payable for the transfer. The purchaser of the shares is liable for the SDRT. Transfers of ordinary shares in certificated form are generally also subject to stamp duty at the rate of 0.5% of the amount or value of the consideration given for the transfer (rounded up to the next £5.00). Stamp duty is normally paid by the purchaser. The charge to SDRT will be canceled or, if already paid, repaid (generally with interest), where a transfer instrument has been duly stamped within six years of the charge arising (either by paying the stamp duty or by claiming an appropriate relief) or if the instrument is otherwise exempt from stamp duty.
An unconditional agreement to transfer ordinary shares to, or to a nominee or agent for, a person whose business is or includes the issue of depositary receipts or the provision of clearance services will generally be subject to SDRT (or, where the transfer is effected by a written instrument, stamp duty) at a higher rate of 1.5% of the amount or value of the consideration given for the transfer unless the clearance service has made and maintained an election under section 97A of the U.K. Finance Act 1986, or a section 97A election. It is understood that HMRC regards the facilities of DTC as a clearance service for these purposes and we are not aware of any section 97A election having been made by DTC. However, no SDRT is generally payable where the transfer of ordinary shares to a clearance service or depositary receipt system is an integral part of an issue of share capital.
Any stamp duty or SDRT payable on a transfer of ordinary shares to a depositary receipt system or clearance service will in practice generally be paid by the transferors or participants in the clearance service or depositary receipt system.
Issue of ADSs
No U.K. stamp duty or SDRT is payable on the issue of ADSs in the company.
 
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Transfers of ADSs
No SDRT should be required to be paid on a paperless transfer of ADSs through the clearance service facilities of DTC, provided that no section 97A election has been made by DTC, and such ADSs are held through DTC at the time of any agreement for their transfer.
No U.K. stamp duty will in practice be payable on a written instrument transferring an ADS provided that the instrument of transfer is executed and remains at all times outside the United Kingdom. Where these conditions are not met, the transfer of, or agreement to transfer, an ADS could, depending on the circumstances, attract a charge to U.K. stamp duty at the rate of 0.5% of the amount or value of the consideration. If it is necessary to pay stamp duty, it may also be necessary to pay interest and penalties.
Issue or Transfers of Ordinary Shares from January 1, 2024
Under recently-enacted U.K. legislation, the U.K. stamp duty and stamp duty reserve tax treatment of the issue and transfer of ordinary shares in the company will change with effect from January 1, 2024, unless action is taken by the U.K. government or Parliament to retain the treatment set out in the preceding paragraphs.
If this change in treatment does occur (i) an unconditional agreement to transfer ordinary shares to, or to a nominee or agent for, a person whose business is or includes the issue of depositary receipts or the provision of clearance services will generally be subject to SDRT (or, where the transfer is effected by a written instrument, stamp duty) at the higher rate of 1.5%, and (ii) SDRT will also generally arise (at the same higher rate of 1.5%) on the issue of ordinary shares to such persons.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the ordinary shares to be represented by the ADSs and the non-voting ordinary shares offered hereby and certain matters of English law will be passed upon for us by Cooley (UK) LLP, London, UK, and certain other matters of U.S. federal law will be passed upon for us by Cooley LLP, Palo Alto, California. The underwriters are being represented in connection with this offering by Covington & Burling LLP, New York, New York.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and do not contain all of the information set forth or incorporated by reference in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus supplement, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference therein. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus supplement, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement.
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Bicycle. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.
Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.bicycletherapeutics.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.
 
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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement. Information in this prospectus supplement supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (File No. 001-38916):

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2023;

our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 28, 2023 (excluding those portions that are not incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on From 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022);

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on May 4, 2023;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 23, 2023, March 28, 2023, April 3, 2023, May 10, 2023, May 26, 2023, June 14, 2023 and June 23, 2023 (in each case, except for information contained therein which is furnished rather than filed); and

the description of our ordinary shares and ADSs contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, as filed with the SEC under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act on May 20, 2019, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description (File No. 001-38916), including, but not limited to, Exhibit 4.4 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 10, 2020.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement but prior to the termination of the offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Bicycle Therapeutics plc, Attention: Corporate Secretary, Blocks A & B, Portway Building, Granta Park Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6GS, United Kingdom, Tel: +44 1223 261503.
The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus supplement, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus supplement or contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or any subsequently filed supplement hereto or thereto, or document deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, modifies or supersedes such statement.
 
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PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_bicycle-bw.jpg]
Ordinary Shares
American Depositary Shares representing Ordinary Shares
Preference Shares
Debt Securities
Warrants
Rights
Units
From time to time, we may offer any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in units, in one or more offerings. We may also offer American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, representing ordinary shares upon conversion of or exchange for the preference shares or debt securities or upon the exercise of the warrants. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable anti-dilution provisions.
This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of the securities being offered.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
Our ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “BCYC.” On May 23, 2023, the last reported sale price of our ADSs was $24.54 per ADS. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on Nasdaq or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.
We will sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts or over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus as described on page 7 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is May 26, 2023.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of an automatic registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this registration statement, we may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. There is no limit on the aggregate amount of the securities that we may offer pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.
Each time we sell any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. We may also add, update or change in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. You should carefully read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information,” before buying any of the securities being offered.
THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.
Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.
You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.
This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference contain summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Bicycle,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Bicycle Therapeutics plc and its wholly owned subsidiaries.
Company Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing a novel class of medicines, which we refer to as Bicycles, for diseases that are underserved by existing therapeutics. Bicycles are fully synthetic short peptides constrained to form two loops which stabilize their structural geometry. This constraint facilitates target binding with high affinity and selectivity, making Bicycles attractive candidates for drug development. Bicycles are a unique therapeutic modality combining the pharmacology usually associated with a biologic with the manufacturing and pharmacokinetic, or PK, properties of a small molecule. The relatively large surface area presented by Bicycles allows targets to be drugged that have historically been intractable to non-biological approaches. Bicycles are excreted by the kidney rather than the liver and have shown no signs of immunogenicity to date, qualities which we believe explain the molecules’ favorable toxicological profile.
We have a novel and proprietary phage display screening platform which we use to identify Bicycles in an efficient manner. The platform initially displays linear peptides on the surface of engineered bacteriophages, or phages, before “on-phage” cyclization with a range of small molecule scaffolds which can confer differentiated physicochemical and structural properties. Our platform encodes quadrillions of potential Bicycles which can be screened to identify molecules for optimization to potential product candidates. We have used this powerful screening technology to identify our current portfolio of candidates in oncology and intend to use it in conjunction with our collaborators to seek to develop additional future candidates across a range of other disease areas.
Our product candidates BT5528, BT8009, and BT1718 are each a Bicycle® Toxin Conjugate, or BTCTM. These Bicycles are chemically attached to a toxin that when administered is cleaved from the Bicycle and kills the tumor cells. We are evaluating BT5528, a second-generation BTC targeting Ephrin type A receptor 2, or EphA2, in a company-sponsored Phase I/II clinical trial and BT8009, a second-generation BTC targeting Nectin-4, in a company-sponsored Phase I/II clinical trial. In addition, BT1718 is being developed to target tumors that express Membrane Type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, or MT1 MMP, and is being investigated for safety, tolerability and efficacy in an ongoing Phase I/IIa clinical trial sponsored and fully funded by the Cancer Research UK Centre for Drug Development, or Cancer Research UK. In addition, our product candidates BT7480 and BT7455 are each a Bicycle tumor-targeted immune cell agonist®, or Bicycle TICATM. A Bicycle TICA links immune cell receptor binding Bicycles to tumor antigen binding Bicycles. We are evaluating BT7480, a Bicycle TICA targeting Nectin-4 and agonizing CD137, in a company-sponsored Phase I/II clinical trial, and IND-enabling studies for BT7455, an EphA2/CD137 Bicycle TICA, are ongoing. Our discovery pipeline in oncology includes Bicycle-based systemic immune cell agonists and Bicycle TICAs.
Beyond our wholly owned oncology portfolio, we are collaborating with biopharmaceutical companies and organizations in therapeutic areas in which we believe our proprietary Bicycle screening platform can identify therapies to treat diseases with significant unmet medical need.
Summary of Selected Risk Factors
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, of which you should be aware before making a decision to invest in our ADSs. These risks and uncertainties include, among others, the following:
 
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We have a history of significant operating losses and expect to incur significant and increasing losses for the foreseeable future, and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.

We may need substantial additional funding, and if we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product discovery and development programs or commercialization efforts.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing shareholders or holders of our ADSs, restrict our operations or cause us to relinquish valuable rights.

Our failure to comply with the covenants or payment obligations under our existing term loan facility with Hercules Capital, Inc., or Hercules, could result in an event of default, which may result in increased interest charges, acceleration of our repayment obligations or other actions by Hercules, any of which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are substantially dependent on the success of our internal development programs and of our product candidates from our Bicycle Toxin Conjugate, or BTC, and Bicycle tumor-targeted immune cell agonist®, or Bicycle TICATM, programs, which may not successfully complete clinical trials, receive regulatory approval or be successfully commercialized.

We are at an early stage in our development efforts, and our product candidates and those of our collaborators represent a new category of medicines and may be subject to heightened regulatory scrutiny until they are established as a therapeutic modality.

We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials, which could delay or prevent us from proceeding with clinical trials of our product candidates.

Results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials may not be predictive of results of future clinical trials.

Our current or future product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs, or IND, that could halt their clinical development, prevent their marketing approval, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences.

We may be delayed or not be successful in our efforts to identify or discover additional product candidates.

We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

We may seek designations for our product candidates with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and other comparable regulatory authorities that are intended to confer benefits such as a faster development process or an accelerated regulatory pathway, but there can be no assurance that we will successfully obtain such designations. In addition, even if one or more of our product candidates are granted such designations, we may not be able to realize the intended benefits of such designations.

Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time consuming and uncertain and may prevent us or any collaborators from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of some or all of our product candidates. As a result, we cannot predict when or if, and in which territories, we, or any collaborators, will obtain marketing approval to commercialize a product candidate.

The market opportunities for any current or future product candidate we develop, if and when approved may be limited to those patients who are ineligible for established therapies or for whom prior therapies have failed, and may be small.

Even if we receive marketing approval of a product candidate, we will be subject to ongoing regulatory obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense, and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with our products, if approved.
 
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We face significant competition and if our competitors develop and market products that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the product candidates we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.

The commercial success of any current or future product candidate will depend upon the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, payors and others in the medical community.

The insurance coverage and reimbursement status of newly approved products is uncertain. Failure to obtain or maintain adequate coverage and reimbursement for any of our product candidates could limit our ability to market those products and decrease our ability to generate revenue.

Healthcare legislative reform measures may have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.

We are subject to stringent and evolving U.S. and foreign laws, regulations, rules, contractual obligations, policies and other obligations related to data privacy and security. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could lead to regulatory investigations or actions, litigation, fines and penalties, disruptions of our business operations, reputational harm, loss of revenue or profits, and other adverse business consequences.

We rely on third parties, including independent clinical investigators and clinical research organizations, or CROs, to conduct and sponsor some of the clinical trials of our product candidates. Any failure by a third party to meet its obligations with respect to the clinical development of our product candidates may delay or impair our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates.

We intend to rely on third parties to manufacture product candidates, which increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of such product candidates or products or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent and other intellectual property protection for our products and product candidates, or if the scope of the patent and other intellectual property protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize products similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our products and product candidates may be adversely affected.

If we are sued for infringing intellectual property rights of third parties, such litigation could be costly and time consuming and could prevent or delay us from developing or commercializing our product candidates.

The market price of our ADSs is highly volatile, and holders of our ADSs may not be able to resell their ADSs at or above the price at which they purchased their ADSs.

As a company based outside of the United States, we are subject to economic, political, regulatory and other risks associated with international operations.
Corporate Information
In 2009, we were incorporated as a limited liability company under the laws of England and Wales. In 2017, we effected a reorganization to create a new holding company which, in connection with our initial public offering, or IPO, in May 2019, re-registered as a public limited company named Bicycle Therapeutics plc, which is the issuer of the securities described in this prospectus. Bicycle Therapeutics plc is the parent company of three wholly owned subsidiaries, two of which are based in Cambridge, England and one of which has its principal office in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The English subsidiaries are BicycleTx Limited and BicycleRD Limited, and the U.S. subsidiary is Bicycle Therapeutics Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at Blocks A & B, Portway Building, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6GS, United Kingdom, and our phone number is +44 1223 261503. Our website address is http://www.bicycletherapeutics.com. The information contained in or accessible from our website is not incorporated into this prospectus, and you should not consider any
 
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information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our securities.
We own various trademark registrations and applications, and unregistered trademarks, including our name. All other trade names, trademarks and service marks of other companies appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus may be referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend to use or display other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
The Securities We May Offer
We may offer ordinary shares, American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, representing our ordinary shares, preference shares, various series of debt securities, warrants to purchase any of our equity or debt securities, rights to purchase any of our equity or debt securities, and units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus from time to time in one or more offerings under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the relevant offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

designation or classification;

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

maturity, if applicable;

original issue discount, if any;

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

redemption, conversion, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;

ranking;

restrictive covenants, if any;

voting or other rights, if any; and

material U.S. federal income tax considerations and material U.K. tax considerations.
The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
We may sell the securities directly to investors or through underwriters, dealers or agents. We, and our underwriters or agents, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities through underwriters or agents, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

the names of those underwriters or agents;

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

the estimated net proceeds to us.
 
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This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
Ordinary Shares and ADSs.   We may issue our ordinary shares or ADSs representing our ordinary shares from time to time. Effective from June 28, 2021, our board of directors has the authority pursuant to Section 551 of the U.K. Companies Act 2006, or the Companies Act, to allot new shares or to grant rights to subscribe for or to convert any security into shares in the company up to a maximum aggregate nominal amount of £250,000. This authority runs for five years and will expire on June 27, 2026. In addition, statutory preemption rights under Section 561(1) of the Companies Act have been disapplied in respect of new ordinary shares issued or rights to subscribe for, or to convert any securities into, new ordinary shares granted pursuant to such authority.
Our ordinary shares have the rights and restrictions described under the section entitled “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association — Key Provisions of Our Articles of Association.” The following summarizes the rights of holders of our ordinary shares:

each holder of our ordinary shares is entitled to one vote per ordinary share on all matters to be voted on by shareholders generally;

the holders of our ordinary shares shall be entitled to receive notice of, attend, speak and vote at our general meetings; and

the holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to receive such dividends as are recommended by our directors and declared by our shareholders.
We are required by the Companies Act to keep a register of our shareholders. Under English law, our ordinary shares are deemed to be issued when the name of the shareholder is entered in our share register. The share register therefore is prima facie evidence of the identity of our shareholders, and the shares that they hold. The share register generally provides limited, or no, information regarding the ultimate beneficial owners of our ordinary shares. Our share register is maintained by our registrar, Computershare Investor Services plc.
Holders of our ADSs are not treated as our shareholders and their names are therefore not entered in our share register. The depositary, the custodian or their nominees will be the holder of the shares underlying our ADSs. Holders of our ADSs have the right to receive the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. For additional discussion of our ADSs and ADS holder rights, see the section entitled “Description of American Depositary Shares.”
Preference Shares.   We may issue preference shares from time to time, in one or more classes. Our articles of association, or Articles, authorize us to issue shares with such rights and restrictions attached as the company may by ordinary resolution determine, or if no ordinary resolution has been passed (or so far as the resolution does not make specific provision), as our board of directors may determine. As of the date of this prospectus, no preference shares have been issued and no preference shares are outstanding or designated.
If we offer a specific class of preference shares under this prospectus, we will describe the terms of the preference shares in the prospectus supplement for such offering and will file a copy of the terms of issue of the preference shares as set out in the ordinary resolution or resolution of the board of directors (or authorized committee thereof), or if the terms of the preference shares are set out in amended Articles, a copy of such amended Articles, with the SEC. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the class of preference shares being offered, as well as the terms of issue of the applicable class of preference shares set out in the ordinary resolution or board resolution, or if applicable, the amended Articles containing the terms of the applicable class of preference shares.
Debt Securities.   We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or
 
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exchangeable for our ordinary shares or, if applicable, preference shares. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.
The debt securities will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
Warrants.   We may issue warrants for the purchase of ordinary shares, ordinary shares represented by ADSs, preference shares and/or debt securities from time to time in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with ordinary shares, ordinary shares represented by ADSs, preference shares, debt securities and/or rights, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. Forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants being offered have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue. Warrants may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.
Rights.   We may issue rights to purchase our equity or debt securities offered under this prospectus from time to time. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the rights. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to rights being offered, as well as the complete rights certificate or rights agreement and any related agreements containing the terms of the rights, which will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
We may evidence the rights by rights certificate that we may issue. Rights may be issued under an applicable rights agreement that we enter into with a rights agent. We will indicate the name and address of the rights agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular rights being offered.
Units.   We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus from time to time in one or more series. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each security included in the unit. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the units. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular units being offered, as well as the applicable unit agreement and form of unit containing the terms of units, which will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
Units may be issued under an applicable unit agreement that we enter into with a unit agent. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of units being offered.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 and our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023, as updated by any subsequently filed periodic reports and other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors described in the documents referenced above could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.
 
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements. These statements are based on our management’s current beliefs, expectations and assumptions about future events, conditions and results and on information currently available to us. Discussions containing these forward-looking statements may be found, among other places, in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated by reference from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto, filed with the SEC.
Any statements in this prospectus, or incorporated herein, about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and are forward-looking statements. Within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, these forward-looking statements include statements regarding:

the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs;

our ability to advance our product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;

our reliance on the success of our product candidates in our Bicycle® Toxin Conjugate, or BTCTM, Bicycle tumor-targeted immune cell agonist®, or Bicycle TICATM and other pipeline programs;

our ability to utilize our screening platform to identify and advance additional product candidates into clinical development;

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;

the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;

our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities;

the pricing, coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;

the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business, product candidates and technology;

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and technology;

our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights and proprietary technology of third parties;

costs associated with defending intellectual property infringement, product liability and other claims;

regulatory developments in the United States, the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions and changes to the laws and regulations of England and Wales, and other jurisdictions;

estimates of our expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;

the amount of and our ability to satisfy interest and principal payments under our debt facility with Hercules Capital, Inc.;

the potential benefits of strategic collaboration agreements and our ability to enter into strategic arrangements;

our ability to maintain and establish collaborations or obtain additional grant funding;

the rate and degree of market acceptance of any approved products;

developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including competing therapies;

our ability to effectively manage our anticipated growth;

our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel;
 
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future revenue, hiring plans, expenses, capital expenditures, capital requirements and share performance;

the impact of public health crises (such as COVID-19) and other adverse global economic conditions on our operations and the potential disruption in the operations and business of third-party manufacturers, contract research organizations, or CROs, other service providers, and collaborators with whom we conduct business; and

potential business interruptions resulting from geo-political actions, such as war and terrorism or the perception that such hostilities may be imminent.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by such terminology as “will,” “may,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue” or variations of these words or similar expressions that are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.
You should refer to the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Given these risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.
Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or developments occurring after the date of this prospectus, even if new information becomes available in the future.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses that we may authorize to be provided to you in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby for general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, working capital, and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to invest in or acquire businesses or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions as of the date of this prospectus. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities sold pursuant to the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. Pending these uses, we intend to invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing cash accounts, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities and/or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. or U.K. government.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
The following description of our share capital and Articles summarizes certain material terms and provisions of our ordinary shares. The description summarizes relevant provisions of English law, including the Companies Act. The following summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the applicable provisions of English law and our Articles, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. We encourage you to read the applicable provisions of English law and our Articles for additional information.
General
In 2009, we were incorporated as a limited liability company under the laws of England and Wales. In 2017, we effected a reorganization to create a new holding company which, in connection with our IPO, was re-registered as a public limited company named Bicycle Therapeutics plc on May 22, 2019. We are registered with the Registrar of Companies in England and Wales under number 11036004, and our registered office is at Blocks A & B, Portway Building, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6GS, United Kingdom.
Certain resolutions were passed by our shareholders in connection with our IPO, including a special resolution approving the adoption of the Articles that became effective immediately prior to the admission of our ADSs to trading on Nasdaq.
Issued Share Capital
We may issue ordinary shares from time to time. Effective from June 28, 2021, our board of directors has the authority pursuant to Section 551 of the Companies Act to allot new shares or to grant rights to subscribe for or to convert any security into shares in the company up to a maximum aggregate nominal amount of £250,000. This authority runs for five years and will expire on June 27, 2026. In addition, statutory preemption rights under Section 561(1) of the Companies Act have been disapplied in respect of new ordinary shares issued or rights to subscribe for, or convert securities into, new ordinary shares granted pursuant to such authority.
As of March 31, 2023, our issued share capital consisted of 30,031,758 ordinary shares, with a nominal value of £0.01 per share. Each issued share has been fully paid.
Ordinary Shares
Our ordinary shares have the rights and restrictions described below under “— Key Provisions of Our Articles of Association.” The following summarizes the rights of holders of our ordinary shares:

each holder of our ordinary shares is entitled to one vote per ordinary share on all matters to be voted on by shareholders generally;

the holders of our ordinary shares shall be entitled to receive notice of, attend, speak and vote at our general meetings; and

the holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to receive such dividends as are recommended by our directors and declared by our shareholders.
Preference Shares
We may issue preference shares from time to time, in one or more classes. Our Articles authorize us to issue shares with such rights and restrictions attached as the company may by ordinary resolution determine, or if no ordinary resolution has been passed (or so far as the resolution does not make specific provision), as our board of directors may determine. As of the date of this prospectus, no preference shares have been issued and no preference shares are outstanding or designated.
Registered Shares
We are required by the Companies Act to keep a register of our shareholders. Under English law, the ordinary shares are deemed to be issued when the name of the shareholder is entered in our share register.
 
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The share register, therefore, is prima facie evidence of the identity of our shareholders and the shares that they hold. The share register generally provides limited, or no, information regarding the ultimate beneficial owners of our ordinary shares. Our share register is maintained by our registrar, Computershare Investor Services plc.
Holders of our ADSs are not treated as shareholders and their names are, therefore, not entered in our share register. The depositary, the custodian or their nominees will be the holder of the shares underlying our ADSs. Holders of our ADSs have a right to receive the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. For discussion on our ADSs and ADS holder rights, see the section entitled “Description of American Depositary Shares” in this prospectus.
Under the Companies Act, we must enter an allotment of shares in our share register as soon as practicable and in any event within two months of the allotment. We also are required by the Companies Act to register a transfer of shares (or give the transferee notice of and reasons for refusal, as the transferee may reasonably request) as soon as practicable and in any event within two months of receiving notice of the transfer.
We, any of our shareholders or any other affected person may apply to the court for rectification of the share register if:

the name of any person, without sufficient cause, is wrongly entered in or omitted from our share register; or

there is a default or unnecessary delay in entering on the register the fact of any person having ceased to be a member or on which we have a lien, provided that such delay does not prevent dealings in the shares taking place on an open and proper basis.
Preemptive Rights
English law generally provides shareholders with preemptive rights when new ordinary shares or rights to subscribe for, or convert securities into, new ordinary shares are issued for cash; however, it is possible for the articles of association, or shareholders in general meeting, to disapply preemptive rights. Such disapplication of preemptive rights may be for a maximum period of up to five years from the date of adoption of the articles of association, if the disapplication is contained in the articles of association, or from the date of the shareholder resolution, if the disapplication is by shareholder resolution. In either case, this disapplication would need to be renewed by our shareholders upon its expiration (i.e., at least every five years). On June 28, 2021, our shareholders approved the disapplication of preemptive rights for a period of five years from the date of approval in relation to the shares authorized to be allotted pursuant to such resolutions, which disapplication will need to be renewed upon expiration (i.e., at least every five years) to remain effective, but may be sought more frequently for additional five-year terms (or any shorter period).
Distributions and Dividends
Under the Companies Act, before a company can lawfully make a distribution or dividend, it must ensure that it has sufficient distributable reserves, as determined on a non-consolidated basis. The basic rule is that a company’s profits available for the purpose of making a distribution are its accumulated, realized profits, so far as not previously utilized by distribution or capitalization, less its accumulated, realized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital duly made. The requirement to have sufficient distributable reserves before a distribution or dividend can be paid applies to us and to each of our subsidiaries that has been incorporated under English law.
As a public company, it will not be sufficient that we have made a distributable profit for the purpose of making a distribution. An additional capital maintenance requirement will be imposed on us to ensure that the net worth of the company is at least equal to the amount of its capital. A public company can only make a distribution:

if, at the time that the distribution is made, the amount of its net assets (that is, the total excess of assets over liabilities) is not less than the total of its called up share capital and undistributable reserves; and
 
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if, and to the extent that, the distribution itself, at the time that it is made, does not reduce the amount of its net assets to less than that total.
Disclosure of Interest in Shares
Pursuant to Part 22 of the Companies Act, a company is empowered by notice in writing to require any person whom the company knows to be, or has reasonable cause to believe to be, interested in the company’s shares or at any time during the three years immediately preceding the date on which the notice is issued to have been so interested, within a reasonable time to disclose to the company details of that person’s interest and (so far as is within such person’s knowledge) details of any other interest that subsists or subsisted in those shares.
Under our Articles, if a shareholder defaults in supplying the company with the required details in relation to the shares in question, or the default shares, within the prescribed period of 14 days our board of directors may by notice direct that:

the relevant shareholder shall not be entitled in respect of the default shares to be present or vote, either in person or by representative or proxy, at any general meeting or separate meeting of the holders of a class of shares or upon any poll or to exercise any other right conferred by the membership in relation to any such meeting or poll;

where the default shares represents at least 0.25% in nominal value of the issued shares of the class in question (calculated exclusive of any shares held as treasury shares), (a) any dividend or other money payable in respect of the default shares shall be retained by us without any liability to pay interest and the relevant shareholder shall not be entitled to elect to receive ordinary shares instead of any dividend, and/or (b) no transfers by the relevant shareholder of default shares (other than a transfer excepted from these provisions in accordance with the provisions of the Articles) may be registered, unless the shareholder himself or herself is not in default and the shareholder proves to the satisfaction of the board of directors that no person in default as regards to supplying such information is interested in any of the default shares; and/or

any shares held by the relevant shareholder in uncertificated form may, at the discretion of the board of directors be converted into certificated form.
Purchase of Own Shares
English law permits a public limited company to purchase its own shares out of the distributable profits of the company or the proceeds of a fresh issue of shares made for the purpose of financing the purchase, subject to complying with procedural requirements under the Companies Act and provided that its articles of association do not prohibit it from doing so. Our Articles, a summary of which is provided below, do not prohibit us from purchasing our own shares. A public limited company must not purchase its own shares if, as a result of the purchase, there would no longer be any issued shares of the company other than redeemable shares or shares held as treasury shares. Shares must be fully paid in order to be repurchased.
Any such purchase will be either a “market purchase” or “off-market purchase,” each as defined in the Companies Act. A “market purchase” is a purchase made on a “recognized investment exchange” ​(other than an overseas exchange) as defined in the UK Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, or FSMA. An “off-market purchase” is a purchase that is not made on a “recognized investment exchange.” Both “market purchases” and “off-market purchases” require prior shareholder approval by way of an ordinary resolution. In the case of an “off market purchase,” a company’s shareholders, other than the shareholders from whom the company is purchasing shares, must approve the terms of the contract to purchase shares and in the case of a “market purchase,” the shareholders must approve the maximum number of shares that can be purchased and the maximum and minimum prices to be paid by the company. Both resolutions authorizing “market purchases” and “off-market purchases” must specify a date, not later than five years after the passing of the resolution, on which the authority to purchase is to expire.
Nasdaq is an “overseas exchange” for the purposes of the Companies Act and does not fall within the definition of a “recognized investment exchange” for the purposes of FSMA and any purchase made by us would need to comply with the procedural requirements under the Companies Act that regulate “off market purchases.”
 
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A share buy-back by a company of its shares will give rise to U.K. stamp duty reserve tax and stamp duty at the rate of 0.5% of the amount or value of the consideration payable by the company (rounded up to the next £5.00), and such stamp duty reserve tax or duty will be paid by the company. The charge to stamp duty reserve tax will be canceled or, if already paid, repaid (generally with interest), where a transfer instrument for stamp duty purposes has been duly stamped within six years of the charge arising (either by paying the stamp duty or by claiming an appropriate relief) or if the instrument is otherwise exempt from stamp duty.
Our Articles do not have conditions governing changes to our capital which are more stringent than those required by law.
Shareholder Rights
Certain rights granted under the Companies Act, including the right to requisition a general meeting or require a resolution to be put to shareholders at the annual general meeting, are only available to our members. For the purposes of English law, our members are the persons who are registered as the owners of the legal title to the shares and whose names are recorded in our register of members. In the case of ADSs representing ordinary shares deposited with the Depositary, the registered member will be the Depositary. If a person who holds their ADSs wishes to exercise certain of the rights granted under the Companies Act, they may be required to withdraw their ADSs upon delivery of ordinary shares on deposit with the Depositary and become the registered holder of the shares in our register of members. A withdrawal of ADSs may have tax implications.
Key Provisions of Our Articles of Association
Our Articles were approved by our shareholders in May 2019 and were effective following the completion of our IPO in May 2019. A summary of certain key provisions of our Articles is set out below. The summary below is not a complete copy of the provisions of the Articles. For further information please refer to the full version of our Articles, which was filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
The Articles contain no specific restrictions on our purpose and therefore, by virtue of section 31(1) of the Companies Act, our purpose is unrestricted.
The Articles contain, among other things, provisions to the following effect:
Share Capital
Our share capital consists of ordinary shares. We may issue shares with such rights and restrictions as may be determined by ordinary resolution, or if no ordinary resolution has been passed or so far as the resolution does not make specific provision, as the board of directors may determine, including shares which are to be redeemed, or are liable to be redeemed at our option or the option of the holder of such shares.
Voting
The shareholders have the right to receive notice of, and to attend and vote at, our general meetings. Subject to any other provisions of our Articles and without prejudice to any special rights, privileges or restrictions as to voting attached to any shares forming part of our share capital, each shareholder who is present in person (or, being a corporation, by representative) or by proxy at a general meeting on a show of hands has one vote and, on a poll, every such shareholder who is present in person (or, being a corporation, by representative) or by proxy has one vote in respect of every share held by him.
Variation of Rights
Whenever our share capital is divided into different classes of shares, the special rights attached to any class may be varied or abrogated either (i) with the consent in writing of the holders of three-fourths of nominal value of the issued shares of that class (excluding any shares of that class held as treasury shares), (ii) with the authority of a special resolution passed at a general meeting of the holders of the shares of that
 
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class or (iii) in any other way as expressly provided for in relation to such rights, and may be so varied and abrogated whilst the company is a going concern.
Dividends
We may, subject to the provisions of the Companies Act and the Articles, by ordinary resolution from time to time declare dividends to be paid to shareholders not exceeding the amount recommended by our board of directors. Subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, in so far as, in the board of directors’ opinions, our profits justify such payments, the board of directors may pay interim dividends on any class of our shares.
Except as provided otherwise by the rights attached to shares, dividends may be declared or paid in any currency. The board of directors may decide the rate of exchange for any currency conversions that may be required and how any costs involved in such conversions are to be met.
Any dividend unclaimed after a period of 12 years from the date such dividend was declared or became payable shall, if the board of directors resolve, be forfeited and shall revert to us. No dividend or other moneys payable on or in respect of a share shall bear interest as against us.
Liquidation Preference
On a distribution of assets on a liquidation, the surplus assets remaining after payment of liabilities shall be distributed among the holders of ordinary shares pro rata to the number of ordinary shares held irrespective of the amount paid or credited as paid on any share.
Transfer of Ordinary Shares
Each member may transfer all or any of his or her shares which are in certificated form by means of an instrument of transfer in any usual form or in any other form which the board of directors may approve. Each member may transfer all or any of his or her shares which are in uncertificated form by means of a “relevant system” in such manner provided for, and subject as provided in, the uncertificated securities rules (as defined in our Articles).
The board of directors may, in its absolute discretion, refuse to register a transfer of certificated shares unless:
(i)
it is for a share which is fully paid up;
(ii)
it is for a share upon which the company has no lien;
(iii)
it is only for one class of share;
(iv)
it is in favor of a single transferee or no more than four joint transferees;
(v)
it is duly stamped or is duly certificated or otherwise shown to the satisfaction of the board of directors to be exempt from stamp duty; and
(vi)
it is delivered for registration to the registered office of the company (or such other place as the board of directors may determine), accompanied (except in the case of a transfer by a person to whom the company is not required by law to issue a certificate and to whom a certificate has not been issued) by the certificate for the shares to which it relates and such other evidence as the board of directors may reasonably require to prove the title of the transferor and the due execution of the transfer by him or, if the transfer is executed by some other person on his or her behalf, the authority of that person to do so.
The board of directors shall not refuse to register any transfer of partly paid shares in respect of which ADSs are admitted to Nasdaq on the grounds that they are partly paid shares in circumstances where such refusal would prevent dealings in such shares from taking place on an open and proper basis.
The board of directors may refuse to register a transfer of uncertificated shares in any circumstances that are allowed or required by the uncertificated securities rules and the relevant system.
 
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Allotment of Shares and Preemption Rights
In accordance with section 551 of the Companies Act, the board of directors may be generally and unconditionally authorized to exercise all the powers of the company to allot shares up to an aggregate nominal amount equal to the amount stated in the relevant ordinary resolution authorizing such allotment. The authorities referred to above were passed by ordinary resolution on June 28, 2021 and remain in force, to the extent unutilized, as of the date of this prospectus.
The provisions of section 561 of the Companies Act (which confer on shareholders rights of preemption in respect of the allotment of equity securities which are paid up in cash) apply to the company except to the extent disapplied by special resolution of the company. Such preemption rights have been disapplied pursuant to the special resolution passed on June 28, 2021 and such disapplication remains in force, to the extent unutilized, as of the date of this prospectus.
Alteration of Share Capital
In accordance with the Companies Act, the company may, by ordinary resolution, consolidate all or any of its share capital into shares of a larger nominal value than its existing shares, or sub-divide its shares, or any of them, into shares of a smaller amount than the existing shares.
The company may, in accordance with the Companies Act, reduce or cancel its share capital or any capital redemption reserve or share premium account in any manner and with and subject to any conditions, authorities and consents required by law.
Board of Directors
Unless otherwise determined by the company by ordinary resolution, the number of directors (other than any alternate directors) shall not be less than two and shall not be subject to any maximum.
Subject to the Articles and the Companies Act, the company may by ordinary resolution appoint a person who is willing to act as a director and the board of directors shall have power at any time to appoint any person who is willing to act as a director, in both cases either to fill a vacancy or as an addition to the existing board of directors.
Our board of directors is divided into three classes, each of which will consist, as nearly as possible, of one-third of the total number of directors constituting our entire board and which will serve staggered three-year terms, with eligibility for re-appointment at the end of such term. At each annual general meeting, the directors of the class whose term expires shall retire from office but are eligible for re-election by ordinary resolution at such annual general meeting and, in each case, where such director is re-elected, they will be entitled to serve until the third anniversary of such annual general meeting, at which point such director shall retire from office but shall be eligible for re-election.
Subject to the provisions of the Articles, the board of directors may regulate their proceedings as they deem appropriate. A director may, and the secretary at the request of a director shall, call a meeting of the directors.
The quorum for a meeting of the board of directors shall be fixed from time to time by a decision of the board of directors, but it must never be less than two directors and unless otherwise fixed, it is two directors.
Questions and matters requiring resolution arising at a meeting shall be decided by a majority of votes of the participating directors, with each director having one vote. In the case of an equality of votes, the chairman will have a second or casting vote (unless he is not entitled to vote on the resolution in question).
Directors shall be entitled to receive such fees as the board shall determine for their services to the company as directors, provided that the aggregate fees payable to the directors must not exceed £1,000,000 per annum or such higher amount as may from time to time be decided by ordinary resolution. Directors shall be entitled to additional remuneration for any special duties or services performed or rendered to the company, as determined by the board of directors, and in respect of any employment or executive office. The directors shall also be entitled to be paid all reasonable expenses properly incurred by them in connection
 
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with their attendance at meetings of shareholders or class meetings, board of director or committee meetings or otherwise in connection with the performance of their duties as directors.
The board of directors may, in accordance with the requirements in the Articles, authorize any matter proposed to them by any director which would, if not authorized, involve a director breaching his or her duty under the Companies Act, to avoid conflicts of interests.
A director seeking authorization in respect of such conflict shall declare to the board of directors the nature and extent of his or her interest in a conflict as soon as is reasonably practicable. The director shall provide the board with such details of the matter as are necessary for the board to decide how to address the conflict together with such additional information as may be requested by the board.
Any authorization by the board of directors will be effective only if:
(i)
to the extent permitted by the Companies Act, the matter in question shall have been proposed by any director for consideration in the same way that any other matter may be proposed to the directors under the provisions of the Articles;
(ii)
any requirement as to the quorum for consideration of the relevant matter is met without counting the conflicted director and any other conflicted director; and
(iii)
the matter is agreed to without the conflicted director voting or would be agreed to if the conflicted director’s and any other interested director’s vote is not counted.
A director cannot vote or be counted in the quorum on any resolution relating to any transaction or arrangement with the company in which he or she has an interest which may reasonably be regarded as likely to give rise to a conflict of interest but can vote (and be counted in the quorum) on matters related to the following:
(i)
giving him or her any security, guarantee or indemnity for any money or any liability which he or she, or any other person, has lent or obligations he or she or any other person has undertaken at the request, or for the benefit, of the company or any of its subsidiary undertakings;
(ii)
giving any security, guarantee or indemnity to any other person for a debt or obligation which is owed by the company or any of its subsidiary undertakings, to that other person if the director has taken responsibility for some or all of that debt or obligation;
(iii)
a proposal or contract relating to an offer of any shares or debentures or other securities for subscription or purchase by the company or any of its subsidiary undertakings, if the director takes part because he or she is a holder of shares, debentures or other securities, or if he or she takes part in the underwriting or sub-underwriting of the offer;
(iv)
any arrangement for the benefit of employees of the company or any of its subsidiary undertakings which only gives him or her benefits which are also generally given to employees to whom the arrangement relates;
(v)
any arrangement involving any other company if the director (together with any person connected with the director) has an interest of any kind in that company (including an interest by holding any position in that company or by being a shareholder of that company), except where the director knows he or she has an interest of 1% or more of any class of equity share capital of the company;
(vi)
a contract relating to insurance which the company can buy or renew for the benefit of the directors or a group of people which includes directors; and
(vii)
a contract relating to a pension, superannuation or similar scheme or a retirement, death, disability benefits scheme or employees’ share scheme which gives the director benefits which are also generally given to the employees to whom the scheme relates.
Subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, every director, secretary or other officer of the company is entitled to be indemnified against all losses and liabilities incurred by him in connection with the exercise of his or her duties or powers.
 
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General Meetings
The company must convene and hold annual general meetings once a year in accordance with the Companies Act. Under the Companies Act, an annual general meeting must be called by notice of at least 21 clear days, and a general meeting must be called by notice of at least 14 clear days.
No business shall be transacted at any general meeting unless a quorum is present when the meeting proceeds to business, but the absence of a quorum shall not preclude the choice or appointment of a chairman of the meeting which shall not be treated as part of the business of the meeting. Two shareholders present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote shall be a quorum for all purposes.
Borrowing Powers
Subject to the Articles and the Companies Act, the board of directors may exercise all of the powers of the company to:
(a)
borrow money;
(b)
indemnify and guarantee;
(c)
mortgage or charge;
(d)
create and issue debentures and other securities; and
(e)
give security either outright or as collateral security for any debt, liability or obligation of the company or of any third party.
Capitalization of Profits
The directors may, if they are so authorized by an ordinary resolution of the shareholders, decide to capitalize any undivided profits of the company not required for paying any preferential dividend (whether or not they are available for distribution), or any sum standing to the credit of any reserve or fund which is available for distribution or standing to the credit of the company’s share premium account, capital redemption reserve or other undistributable reserve. The directors may also, subject to the aforementioned ordinary resolution, appropriate any sum which they so decide to capitalize to the persons who would have been entitled to it if it were distributed by way of dividend and in the same proportions.
Limitation on Owning Securities
Neither English law nor our Articles restrict in any way the ownership or voting of our shares by non-residents.
Uncertificated Shares
Subject to the Companies Act, the board of directors may permit title to shares of any class to be issued or held otherwise than by a certificate and to be transferred by means of a “relevant system” ​(e.g., the CREST System) without a certificate.
The board of directors may take such steps as it sees fit in relation to the evidencing of and transfer of title to uncertificated shares, any records relating to the holding of uncertificated shares and the conversion of uncertificated shares to certificated shares, or vice-versa.
The company may by notice to the holder of an uncertificated share, require that share to be converted into certificated form.
The board of directors may take such other action that the board considers appropriate to achieve the sale, transfer, disposal, forfeiture, re-allotment or surrender of an uncertified share or otherwise to enforce a lien in respect of it.
 
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Other Relevant United Kingdom Laws and Regulations
Mandatory Bid
(i)
The City Code on Takeovers and Mergers, or the Takeover Code, does not currently apply to the company. However if the company were to become subject to the Takeover Code in the future, the following provisions will apply. Under the Takeover Code, where:
(a)
any person, together with persons acting in concert with him, acquires, whether by a series of transactions over a period of time or not, an interest in shares which (taken together with shares in which he is already interested, and in which persons acting in concert with him are interested) carry 30% or more of the voting rights of a company; or
(b)
any person who, together with persons acting in concert with him, is interested in shares which in the aggregate carry not less than 30% of the voting rights of a company but does not hold shares carrying more than 50% of such voting rights and such person, or any person acting in concert with him, acquires an interest in any other shares which increases the percentage of shares carrying voting rights in which he is interested,
such person shall, except in limited circumstances, be obliged to extend offers, on the basis set out in Rules 9.3, 9.4 and 9.5 of the Takeover Code, to the holders of any class of equity share capital, whether voting or non-voting, and also to the holders of any other class of transferable securities carrying voting rights. Offers for different classes of equity share capital must be comparable; the Takeover Panel should be consulted in advance in such cases.
(ii)
An offer under Rule 9 of the Takeover Code must be in cash or be accompanied by a cash alternative at not less than the highest price paid for any interest in the shares by the person required to make an offer or any person acting in concert with him during the 12 months prior to the announcement of the offer.
(iii)
Under the Takeover Code, a “concert party” arises where persons acting together pursuant to an agreement or understanding (whether formal or informal and whether or not in writing) actively cooperate, through the acquisition by them of an interest in shares in a company, to obtain or consolidate control of the company. “Control” means holding, or aggregate holdings, of an interest in shares carrying 30% or more of the voting rights of the company, irrespective of whether the holding or holdings give de facto control.
Squeeze-Out
(i)
Under sections 979 to 982 of the Companies Act, where a takeover offer has been made for us and the offeror has acquired, or unconditionally contracted to acquire, not less than 90% in value of the shares to which the offer relates and not less than 90% of the voting rights carried by those shares, it could then compulsorily acquire the remaining 10%. It would do so by sending a notice to outstanding shareholders telling them that it will compulsorily acquire their shares, provided that no such notice may be served after the end of: (a) the period of three months beginning with the day after the last day on which the offer can be accepted; or (b) if earlier, and the offer is not one to which section 943(1) of the Companies Act applies, the period of six months beginning with the date of the offer.
(ii)
Six weeks following service of the notice, the offeror must send a copy of it to the company together with the consideration for the ordinary shares to which the notice relates, and an instrument of transfer executed on behalf of the outstanding shareholder(s) by a person appointed by the offeror.
(iii)
The company will hold the consideration on trust for the outstanding shareholders.
Sell-out
(i)
Sections 983 to 985 of the Companies Act also give minority shareholders in the company a right
 
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to be bought out in certain circumstances by an offeror who has made a takeover offer. If a takeover offer relating to all the ordinary shares of the company is made and the offeror has acquired or unconditionally agreed to acquire not less than 90% in value of the voting shares and not less than 90% of the voting rights carried by those shares, at any time before the end of the period within which the offer could be accepted, any holder of shares to which the offer related who had not accepted the offer could by a written communication to the offeror require it to acquire those shares. The offeror is required to give any shareholder notice of his or her right to be bought out within one month of that right arising. The offeror may impose a time limit on the rights of minority shareholders to be bought out, but that period cannot end less than three months after the end of the acceptance period, or, if longer a period of three months from the date of the notice.
(ii)
If a shareholder exercises his or her rights, the offeror is bound to acquire those shares on the terms of the offer or on such other terms as may be agreed.
Differences in Corporate Law
The applicable provisions of the Companies Act differ from laws applicable to U.S. corporations and their stockholders. Set forth below is a summary of certain differences between the provisions of the Companies Act applicable to us and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware relating to shareholders’ rights and protections. This summary is not intended to be a complete discussion of the respective rights and it is qualified in its entirety by reference to Delaware law and English law.
England and Wales
Delaware
Number of Directors
Under the Companies Act, a public limited company must have at least two directors and the number of directors may be fixed by or in the manner provided in a company’s articles of association. Under Delaware law, a corporation must have at least one director and the number of directors shall be fixed by or in the manner provided in the bylaws.
Removal of Directors
Under the Companies Act, shareholders may remove a director without cause by an ordinary resolution (which is passed by a simple majority of those voting in person or by proxy at a general meeting) irrespective of any provisions of any service contract the director has with the company, provided 28 clear days’ notice of the resolution has been given to the company and its shareholders. On receipt of notice of an intended resolution to remove a director, the company must forthwith send a copy of the notice to the director concerned. Certain other procedural requirements under the Companies Act must also be followed, such as allowing the director to make representations against his or her removal either at the meeting or in writing. Under Delaware law, any director or the entire board of directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors, except (i) unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise, in the case of a corporation whose board of directors is classified, stockholders may effect such removal only for cause, or (ii) in the case of a corporation having cumulative voting, if less than the entire board of directors is to be removed, no director may be removed without cause if the votes cast against his or her removal would be sufficient to elect him if then cumulatively voted at an election of the entire board of directors, or, if there are classes of directors, at an election of the class of directors of which he is a part.
Vacancies on the Board of Directors
Under English law, the procedure by which directors, other than a company’s initial directors, are Under Delaware law, vacancies and newly created directorships may be filled by a majority of the directors
 
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England and Wales
Delaware
appointed is generally set out in a company’s articles of association, provided that where two or more persons are appointed as directors of a public limited company by resolution of the shareholders, resolutions appointing each director must be voted on individually. then in office (even though less than a quorum) or by a sole remaining director unless (i) otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of the corporation or (ii) the certificate of incorporation directs that a particular class of stock is to elect such director, in which case a majority of the other directors elected by such class, or a sole remaining director elected by such class, will fill such vacancy.
Annual General Meeting
Under the Companies Act, a public limited company must hold an annual general meeting in each six-month period following the company’s annual accounting reference date. Under Delaware law, the annual meeting of stockholders shall be held at such place, on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors or as provided in the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.
General Meeting
Under the Companies Act, a general meeting of the shareholders of a public limited company may be called by the directors.
Shareholders holding at least 5% of the paid-up capital of the company carrying voting rights at general meetings (excluding any paid up capital held as treasury shares) can require the directors to call a general meeting and, if the directors fail to do so within a certain period, may themselves convene a general meeting.
Under Delaware law, special meetings of the stockholders may be called by the board of directors or by such person or persons as may be authorized by the certificate of incorporation or by the bylaws.
Notice of General Meetings
Under the Companies Act, at least 21 clear days’ notice must be given for an annual general meeting and any resolutions to be proposed at the meeting. Subject to a company’s articles of association providing for a longer period, at least 14 clear days’ notice is required for any other general meeting of a public limited company. In addition, certain matters, such as the removal of directors or auditors, require special notice, which is 28 clear days’ notice. The shareholders of a company may in all cases consent to a shorter notice period, the proportion of shareholders’ consent required being 100% of those entitled to attend and vote in the case of an annual general meeting and, in the case of any other Under Delaware law, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws, written notice of any meeting of the stockholders must be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at the meeting not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting and shall specify the place, date, hour and purpose or purposes of the meeting.
 
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England and Wales
Delaware
general meeting, a majority in number of the members having a right to attend and vote at the meeting, being a majority who together hold not less than 95% in nominal value of the shares giving a right to attend and vote at the meeting.
Quorum
Subject to the provisions of a company’s articles of association, the Companies Act provides that two shareholders present at a meeting (in person or by proxy) shall constitute a quorum. The certificate of incorporation or bylaws may specify the number of shares, the holders of which shall be present or represented by proxy at any meeting in order to constitute a quorum, but in no event shall a quorum consist of less than one third of the shares entitled to vote at the meeting. In the absence of such specification in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws, a majority of the shares entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of stockholders.
Proxy
Under the Companies Act, at any meeting of shareholders, a shareholder may designate another person to attend, speak and vote at the meeting on their behalf by proxy. Under Delaware law, at any meeting of stockholders, a stockholder may designate another person to act for such stockholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A director of a Delaware corporation may not issue a proxy representing the director’s voting rights as a director.
Issue of New Shares
Under the Companies Act, the directors of a company must not exercise any power to allot shares or grant rights to subscribe for, or to convert any security into, shares unless they are authorized to do so by the company’s articles of association or by an ordinary resolution of the shareholders. Any authorization given must state the maximum amount of shares that may be allotted under it and specify the date on which it will expire, which must be not more than five years from the date the authorization was given. The authority can be renewed by a further resolution of the shareholders. Under Delaware law, if the company’s certificate of incorporation so provides, the directors have the power to authorize the issuance of additional stock. The directors may authorize capital stock to be issued for consideration consisting of cash, any tangible or intangible property or any benefit to the company or any combination thereof.
Preemptive Rights
Under the Companies Act, “equity securities,” being (i) shares in the Under Delaware law, stockholders have no preemptive rights to
 
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England and Wales
Delaware
company other than shares that, with respect to dividends and capital, carry a right to participate only up to a specified amount in a distribution, referred to as “ordinary shares,” or (ii) rights to subscribe for, or to convert securities into, ordinary shares, proposed to be allotted for cash must be offered first to the existing equity shareholders in the company in proportion to the respective nominal value of their holdings, unless an exception applies or a special resolution to the contrary has been passed by shareholders in a general meeting or the articles of association provide otherwise in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act. subscribe to additional issues of stock or to any security convertible into such stock unless, and except to the extent that, such rights are expressly provided for in the certificate of incorporation.
Authority to Allot
Under the Companies Act, the directors of a company must not allot shares or grant rights to subscribe for or convert any security into shares unless an exception applies or an ordinary resolution to the contrary has been passed by shareholders in a general meeting or the articles of association provide otherwise, in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act. Under Delaware law, if the corporation’s charter or certificate of incorporation so provides, the board of directors has the power to authorize the issuance of stock. The board may authorize capital stock to be issued for consideration consisting of cash, any tangible or intangible property or any benefit to the corporation or any combination thereof. It may determine the amount of such consideration by approving a formula. In the absence of actual fraud in the transaction, the judgment of the directors as to the value of such consideration is conclusive.
Liability of Directors and Officers
Under the Companies Act, any provision, whether contained in a company’s articles of association or any contract or otherwise, that purports to exempt a director of a company, to any extent, from any liability that would otherwise attach to him in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company, is void.
Any provision by which a company directly or indirectly provides an indemnity, to any extent, for a director of the company or of an associated company against any liability attaching to him in
Under Delaware law, a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may include a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation and its stockholders for damages arising from a breach of fiduciary duty as a director. However, no provision can limit the liability of a director for:

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders;

acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;
 
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England and Wales
Delaware
connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company of which he is a director is also void except as permitted by the Companies Act, which provides exceptions for the company to (i) purchase and maintain insurance against such liability; (ii) provide a “qualifying third party indemnity,” or an indemnity against liability incurred by the director to a person other than the company or an associated company or criminal proceedings in which he is convicted; and (iii) provide a “qualifying pension scheme indemnity,” or an indemnity against liability incurred in connection with the company’s activities as trustee of an occupational pension plan.

intentional or negligent payment of unlawful dividends or stock purchases or redemptions; or

any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.
Voting Rights
Under English law, unless a poll is demanded by the shareholders of a company or is required by the chairman of the meeting or the company’s articles of association, shareholders shall vote on all resolutions on a show of hands. Under the Companies Act, a poll may be demanded by (i) not fewer than five shareholders having the right to vote on the resolution; (ii) any shareholder(s) representing not less than 10% of the total voting rights of all the shareholders having the right to vote on the resolution (excluding any voting rights attaching to treasury shares); or (iii) any shareholder(s) holding shares in the company conferring a right to vote on the resolution (excluding any voting rights attaching to treasury shares) being shares on which an aggregate sum has been paid up equal to not less than 10% of the total sum paid up on all the shares conferring that right. A company’s articles of association may provide more extensive rights for shareholders to call a poll.
Under English law, an ordinary resolution is passed on a show of hands if it is approved by a simple
Delaware law provides that, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each stockholder is entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder.
 
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England and Wales
Delaware
majority (more than 50%) of the votes cast by shareholders present (in person or by proxy) and entitled to vote. If a poll is demanded, an ordinary resolution is passed if it is approved by holders representing a simple majority of the total voting rights of shareholders present, in person or by proxy, who, being entitled to vote, vote on the resolution. Special resolutions require the affirmative vote of not less than 75% of the votes cast by shareholders present, in person or by proxy, at the meeting. If a poll is demanded, a special resolution is passed if it is approved by holders representing not less than 75% of the total voting rights of shareholders in person or by proxy who, being entitled to vote, vote on the resolution.
Shareholder Vote on Certain Transactions
The Companies Act provides for schemes of arrangement, which are arrangements or compromises between a company and any class of shareholders or creditors and used in certain types of reconstructions, amalgamations, capital reorganizations or takeovers. These arrangements require:

the approval at a shareholders’ or creditors’ meeting convened by order of the court, of a majority in number of shareholders or creditors representing 75% in value of the capital held by, or debt owed to, the shareholders or creditors or class thereof present and voting, either in person or by proxy; and

the approval of the court.
Generally, under Delaware law, unless the certificate of incorporation provides for the vote of a larger portion of the stock, completion of a merger, consolidation, sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of a corporation’s assets or dissolution requires:

the approval of the board of directors; and

the approval by the vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding stock or, if the certificate of incorporation provides for more or less than one vote per share, a majority of the votes of the outstanding stock of the corporation entitled to vote on the matter.
Standard of Conduct for Directors
Under English law, a director owes various statutory and fiduciary duties to the company, including:

to act in the way he considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole;

to avoid a situation in which he has, or can have, a direct or indirect
Delaware law does not contain specific provisions setting forth the standard of conduct of a director. The scope of the fiduciary duties of directors is generally determined by the courts of the State of Delaware. In general, directors have a duty to act without self-interest, on a well-informed basis and in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interest of the stockholders.
 
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England and Wales
Delaware
interest that conflicts, or possibly conflicts, with the interests of the company;

to act in accordance with the company’s constitution and only exercise his or her powers for the purposes for which they are conferred;

to exercise independent judgment;

to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence;

not to accept benefits from a third party conferred by reason of his or her being a director or doing, or not doing, anything as a director; and

to declare any interest that he has, whether directly or indirectly, in a proposed or existing transaction or arrangement with the company.
Directors of a Delaware corporation owe fiduciary duties of care and loyalty to the corporation and to its stockholders. The duty of care generally requires that a director act in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself of all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director act in a manner he reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. He must not use his or her corporate position for personal gain or advantage. In general, but subject to certain exceptions, actions of a director are presumed to have been made on an informed basis, in good faith and in the honest belief that the action taken was in the best interests of the corporation. However, this presumption may be rebutted by evidence of a breach of one of the fiduciary duties. Delaware courts have also imposed a heightened standard of conduct upon directors of a Delaware corporation who take any action designed to defeat a threatened change in control of the corporation.
In addition, under Delaware law, when the board of directors of a Delaware corporation approves the sale or break-up of a corporation, the board of directors may, in certain circumstances, have a duty to obtain the highest value reasonably available to the stockholders.
Shareholder Litigation
Under English law, generally, the company, rather than its shareholders, is the proper claimant in an action in respect of a wrong done to the company or where there is an irregularity in the company’s internal management. Notwithstanding this general position, the Companies Act provides that (i) a court may allow a shareholder to bring a derivative claim (that is, an action in respect of
Under Delaware law, a stockholder may initiate a derivative action to enforce a right of a corporation if the corporation fails to enforce the right itself. The complaint must:

state that the plaintiff was a stockholder at the time of the transaction of which the plaintiff complains or that the plaintiffs shares thereafter devolved on the plaintiff by operation of law; and
 
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England and Wales
Delaware
and on behalf of the company) in respect of a cause of action arising from a director’s negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust and (ii) a shareholder may bring a claim for a court order where the company’s affairs have been or are being conducted in a manner that is unfairly prejudicial to some of its shareholders.

allege with particularity the efforts made by the plaintiff to obtain the action the plaintiff desires from the directors and the reasons for the plaintiff’s failure to obtain the action; or

state the reasons for not making the effort.
Additionally, the plaintiff must remain a stockholder through the duration of the derivative suit. The action will not be dismissed or compromised without the approval of the Delaware Court of Chancery.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
Our share register is maintained by Computershare Investor Services plc. The share register reflects only record owners of our ordinary shares. Holders of our ADSs will not be treated as our shareholders and their names will therefore not be entered in our share register. The depositary, the custodian or their nominees will be the holder of the ordinary shares underlying our ADSs. Holders of our ADSs have a right to receive the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. For discussion on our ADSs and ADS holder rights, see the section entitled “Description of American Depositary Shares” in this prospectus. The transfer agent for any class of preference share that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that class.
Listing on Nasdaq
Our ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “BCYC.”
 
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DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES
Citibank, N.A. acts as the depositary bank for the American Depositary Shares. Citibank’s depositary offices are located at 388 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10013. American Depositary Shares are frequently referred to as “ADSs” and represent ownership interests in securities that are on deposit with the depositary bank. ADSs may be represented by certificates that are commonly known as “American Depositary Receipts” or “ADRs.” The depositary bank typically appoints a custodian to safekeep the securities on deposit. In this case, the custodian is Citibank, N.A. (London), located at Citigroup Centre, Canary Wharf, London, E14 5LB, United Kingdom.
We have appointed Citibank as depositary bank pursuant to a deposit agreement. A copy of the deposit agreement is on file with the SEC under cover of a registration statement on Form F-6 that was declared effective on May 23, 2019. You may obtain a copy of the deposit agreement from the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov). Please refer to Registration Number 333-231422 when retrieving such copy.
We are providing you with a summary description of the material terms of the ADSs and of your material rights as an owner of ADSs. Please remember that summaries by their nature lack the precision of the information summarized and that the rights and obligations of an owner of ADSs will be determined by reference to the terms of the deposit agreement and not by this summary. We urge you to review the deposit agreement in its entirety. The portions of this summary description that are italicized describe matters that may be relevant to the ownership of ADSs but that may not be contained in the deposit agreement.
Each ADS represents the right to receive, and to exercise the beneficial ownership interests in, one ordinary share that is on deposit with the depositary bank and/or custodian. An ADS also represents the right to receive, and to exercise the beneficial interests in, any other property received by the depositary bank or the custodian on behalf of the owner of the ADS but that has not been distributed to the owners of ADSs because of legal restrictions or practical considerations. We and the depositary bank may agree to change the ADS-to-Share ratio by amending the deposit agreement. This amendment may give rise to, or change, the depositary fees payable by ADS owners. The custodian, the depositary bank and their respective nominees will hold all deposited property for the benefit of the holders and beneficial owners of ADSs. The deposited property does not constitute the proprietary assets of the depositary bank, the custodian or their nominees. Beneficial ownership in the deposited property will under the terms of the deposit agreement be vested in the beneficial owners of the ADSs. The depositary bank, the custodian and their respective nominees will be the record holders of the deposited property represented by the ADSs for the benefit of the holders and beneficial owners of the corresponding ADSs. A beneficial owner of ADSs may or may not be the holder of ADSs. Beneficial owners of ADSs will be able to receive, and to exercise beneficial ownership interests in, the deposited property only through the registered holders of the ADSs, the registered holders of the ADSs (on behalf of the applicable ADS owners) only through the depositary bank, and the depositary bank (on behalf of the owners of the corresponding ADSs) directly, or indirectly, through the custodian or their respective nominees, in each case upon the terms of the deposit agreement.
If you become an owner of ADSs, you will become a party to the deposit agreement and therefore will be bound to its terms and to the terms of any ADR that represents your ADSs. The deposit agreement and the ADR specify our rights and obligations as well as your rights and obligations as owner of ADSs and those of the depositary bank. As an ADS holder you appoint the depositary bank to act on your behalf in certain circumstances. The deposit agreement and the ADRs are governed by New York law. However, our obligations to the holders of ordinary shares will continue to be governed by the laws of England and Wales, which may be different from the laws in the United States.
In addition, applicable laws and regulations may require you to satisfy reporting requirements and obtain regulatory approvals in certain circumstances. You are solely responsible for complying with such reporting requirements and obtaining such approvals. Neither the depositary bank, the custodian, us or any of their or our respective agents or affiliates shall be required to take any actions whatsoever on your behalf to satisfy such reporting requirements or obtain such regulatory approvals under applicable laws and regulations.
As an owner of ADSs, we will not treat you as one of our shareholders and you will not have direct shareholder rights. The depositary bank will hold on your behalf the shareholder rights attached to the
 
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ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. As an owner of ADSs you will be able to exercise the shareholders rights for the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs through the depositary bank only to the extent contemplated in the deposit agreement. To exercise any shareholder rights not contemplated in the deposit agreement you will, as an ADS owner, need to arrange for the cancellation of your ADSs and become a direct shareholder.
The manner in which you own the ADSs (e.g., in a brokerage account versus as registered holder, or as holder of certificated versus uncertificated ADSs) may affect your rights and obligations, and the manner in which, and extent to which, the depositary bank’s services are made available to you. As an owner of ADSs, you may hold your ADSs either by means of an ADR registered in your name, through a brokerage or safekeeping account, or through an account established by the depositary bank in your name reflecting the registration of uncertificated ADSs directly on the books of the depositary bank (commonly referred to as the “direct registration system” or “DRS”). The direct registration system reflects the uncertificated (book-entry) registration of ownership of ADSs by the depositary bank. Under the direct registration system, ownership of ADSs is evidenced by periodic statements issued by the depositary bank to the holders of the ADSs. The direct registration system includes automated transfers between the depositary bank and The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, the central book-entry clearing and settlement system for equity securities in the United States. If you decide to hold your ADSs through your brokerage or safekeeping account, you must rely on the procedures of your broker or bank to assert your rights as ADS owner. Banks and brokers typically hold securities such as the ADSs through clearing and settlement systems such as DTC. The procedures of such clearing and settlement systems may limit your ability to exercise your rights as an owner of ADSs. Please consult with your broker or bank if you have any questions concerning these limitations and procedures. All ADSs held through DTC will be registered in the name of a nominee of DTC. This summary description assumes you have opted to own the ADSs directly by means of an ADS registered in your name and, as such, we will refer to you as the “holder.” When we refer to “you,” we assume the reader owns ADSs and will own ADSs at the relevant time.
The registration of the ordinary shares in the name of the depositary bank or the custodian shall, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, vest in the depositary bank or the custodian the record ownership in the applicable ordinary shares with the beneficial ownership rights and interests in such ordinary shares being at all times vested with the beneficial owners of the ADSs representing the ordinary shares. The depositary bank or the custodian shall at all times be entitled to exercise the beneficial ownership rights in all deposited property, in each case only on behalf of the holders and beneficial owners of the ADSs representing the deposited property.
Dividends and Distributions
As a holder of ADSs, you generally have the right to receive the distributions we make on the securities deposited with the custodian. Your receipt of these distributions may be limited, however, by practical considerations and legal limitations. Holders of ADSs will receive such distributions under the terms of the deposit agreement in proportion to the number of ADSs held as of the specified record date, after deduction of the applicable fees, taxes and expenses.
Distributions of Cash
Whenever we make a cash distribution for the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will deposit the funds with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of the deposit of the requisite funds, the depositary bank will arrange for the funds received in a currency other than U.S. dollars to be converted into U.S. dollars and for the distribution of the U.S. dollars to the holders, subject to English laws and regulations.
The conversion into U.S. dollars will take place only if practicable and if the U.S. dollars are transferable to the United States. The depositary bank will apply the same method for distributing the proceeds of the sale of any property (such as undistributed rights) held by the custodian in respect of securities on deposit.
The distribution of cash will be made net of the fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. The depositary bank will hold any cash amounts it is unable to distribute in a non-interest bearing account for the benefit of the applicable holders and beneficial
 
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owners of ADSs until the distribution can be effected or the funds that the depositary bank holds must be escheated as unclaimed property in accordance with the laws of the relevant states of the United States.
Distributions of Shares
Whenever we make a free distribution of ordinary shares for the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will deposit the applicable number of ordinary shares with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of such deposit, the depositary bank will either distribute to holders new ADSs representing the ordinary shares deposited or modify the ADS-to-ordinary-share ratio, in which case each ADS you hold will represent rights and interests in the additional ordinary shares so deposited. Only whole new ADSs will be distributed. Fractional entitlements will be sold and the proceeds of such sale will be distributed as in the case of a cash distribution.
The distribution of new ADSs or the modification of the ADS-to-ordinary-share ratio upon a distribution of ordinary shares will be made net of the fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. In order to pay such taxes or governmental charges, the depositary bank may sell all or a portion of the new ordinary shares so distributed.
No such distribution of new ADSs will be made if it would violate a law (e.g., the U.S. securities laws) or if it is not operationally practicable. If the depositary bank does not distribute new ADSs as described above, it may sell the ordinary shares received upon the terms described in the deposit agreement and will distribute the proceeds of the sale as in the case of a distribution of cash.
Distributions of Rights
Whenever we intend to distribute rights to subscribe for additional ordinary shares, we will give prior notice to the depositary bank and we will assist the depositary bank in determining whether it is lawful and reasonably practicable to distribute rights to subscribe for additional ADSs to holders.
The depositary bank will establish procedures to distribute rights to subscribe for additional ADSs to holders and to enable such holders to exercise such rights if it is lawful and reasonably practicable to make the rights available to holders of ADSs, and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement (such as opinions to address the lawfulness of the transaction). You may have to pay fees, expenses, taxes and other governmental charges to subscribe for the new ADSs upon the exercise of your rights. The depositary bank is not obligated to establish procedures to facilitate the distribution and exercise by holders of rights to subscribe for new ordinary shares other than in the form of ADSs.
The depositary bank will not distribute the rights to you if:

we do not timely request that the rights be distributed to you or we request that the rights not be distributed to you; or

we fail to deliver satisfactory documents to the depositary bank; or

it is not reasonably practicable to distribute the rights.
The depositary bank will sell the rights that are not exercised or not distributed if such sale is lawful and reasonably practicable. The proceeds of such sale will be distributed to holders as in the case of a cash distribution. If the depositary bank is unable to sell the rights, it will allow the rights to lapse.
Elective Distributions
Whenever we intend to distribute a dividend payable at the election of shareholders either in cash or in additional shares, we will give prior notice thereof to the depositary bank and will indicate whether we wish the elective distribution to be made available to you. In such case, we will assist the depositary bank in determining whether such distribution is lawful and reasonably practicable.
The depositary bank will make the election available to you only if it is reasonably practicable and if we have provided all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement. In such case, the depositary bank will establish procedures to enable you to elect to receive either cash or additional ADSs, in each case as described in the deposit agreement.
 
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If the election is not made available to you, you will receive either cash or additional ADSs, depending on what a shareholder in England and Wales would receive upon failing to make an election, as more fully described in the deposit agreement.
Other Distributions
Whenever we intend to distribute property other than cash, ordinary shares or rights to subscribe for additional ordinary shares, we will notify the depositary bank in advance and will indicate whether we wish such distribution to be made to you. If so, we will assist the depositary bank in determining whether such distribution to holders is lawful and reasonably practicable.
If it is reasonably practicable to distribute such property to you and if we provide to the depositary bank all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement, the depositary bank will distribute the property to the holders in a manner it deems practicable.
The distribution will be made net of fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. In order to pay such taxes and governmental charges, the depositary bank may sell all or a portion of the property received.
The depositary bank will not distribute the property to you and will sell the property if:

we do not request that the property be distributed to you or if we request that the property not be distributed to you; or

we do not deliver satisfactory documents to the depositary bank; or

the depositary bank determines that all or a portion of the distribution to you is not reasonably practicable.
The proceeds of such a sale will be distributed to holders as in the case of a cash distribution.
Redemption
Whenever we decide to redeem any of the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will notify the depositary bank in advance. If it is practicable and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement, the depositary bank will provide notice of the redemption to the holders.
The custodian will be instructed to surrender the shares being redeemed against payment of the applicable redemption price. The depositary bank will convert into U.S. dollars upon the terms of the deposit agreement the redemption funds received in a currency other than U.S. dollars and will establish procedures to enable holders to receive the net proceeds from the redemption upon surrender of their ADSs to the depositary bank. You may have to pay fees, expenses, taxes and other governmental charges upon the redemption of your ADSs. If less than all ADSs are being redeemed, the ADSs to be retired will be selected by lot or on a pro rata basis, as the depositary bank may determine.
Changes Affecting Ordinary Shares
The ordinary shares held on deposit for your ADSs may change from time to time. For example, there may be a change in nominal or par value, split-up, cancellation, consolidation or any other reclassification of such ordinary shares or a recapitalization, reorganization, merger, consolidation or sale of assets of the company.
If any such change were to occur, your ADSs would, to the extent permitted by law and the deposit agreement, represent the right to receive the property received or exchanged in respect of the ordinary shares held on deposit. The depositary bank may in such circumstances deliver new ADSs to you, amend the deposit agreement, the ADRs and the applicable registration statement(s) on Form F-6, call for the exchange of your existing ADSs for new ADSs and take any other actions that are appropriate to reflect as to the ADSs the change affecting the ordinary shares. If the depositary bank may not lawfully distribute such property to you, the depositary bank may sell such property and distribute the net proceeds to you as in the case of a cash distribution.
 
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Issuance of ADSs upon Deposit of Ordinary Shares
Upon completion of an offering, the ordinary shares that are being offered pursuant to the prospectus will be deposited by us with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of such deposit, the depositary bank will issue ADSs to the underwriters or agents named in the prospectus. In addition, if you own ordinary shares, the depositary bank may create ADSs on your behalf if you or your broker deposit ordinary shares with the custodian. The depositary bank will deliver these ADSs to the person you indicate only after you pay any applicable issuance fees and any charges and taxes payable for the transfer of the ordinary shares to the custodian. Your ability to deposit ordinary shares and receive ADSs may be limited by U.S. and English legal considerations applicable at the time of deposit.
The issuance of ADSs may be delayed until the depositary bank or the custodian receives confirmation that all required approvals have been given and that the ordinary shares have been duly transferred to the custodian. The depositary bank will only issue ADSs in whole numbers.
When you make a deposit of ordinary shares, you will be responsible for transferring good and valid title to the depositary bank. As such, you will be deemed to represent and warrant that:

the ordinary shares are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid, non-assessable and legally obtained;

all preemptive (and similar) rights, if any, with respect to such ordinary shares have been validly waived or exercised;

you are duly authorized to deposit the ordinary shares. The ordinary shares presented for deposit are free and clear of any lien, encumbrance, security interest, charge, mortgage or adverse claim, and are not, and the ADSs issuable upon such deposit will not be, “restricted securities” ​(as defined in the deposit agreement; and

the ordinary shares presented for deposit have not been stripped of any rights or entitlements.
If any of the representations or warranties are incorrect in any way, we and the depositary bank may, at your cost and expense, take any and all actions necessary to correct the consequences of the misrepresentations.
Transfer, Combination and Split Up of ADRs
As an ADR holder, you will be entitled to transfer, combine or split up your ADRs and the ADSs evidenced thereby. For transfers of ADRs, you will have to surrender the ADRs to be transferred to the depositary bank and also must:

ensure that the surrendered ADR is properly endorsed or otherwise in proper form for transfer;

provide such proof of identity and genuineness of signatures as the depositary bank deems appropriate;

provide any transfer stamps required by the State of New York or the United States; and

pay all applicable fees, charges, expenses, taxes and other government charges payable by ADR holders pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement, upon the transfer of ADRs.
To have your ADRs either combined or split up, you must surrender the ADRs in question to the depositary bank with your request to have them combined or split up, and you must pay all applicable fees, charges and expenses payable by ADR holders, pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement, upon a combination or split up of ADRs.
Withdrawal of Ordinary Shares Upon Cancellation of ADSs
As a holder, you will be entitled to present your ADSs to the depositary bank for cancellation and then receive the corresponding number of underlying ordinary shares at the custodian’s offices. Your ability to withdraw the ordinary shares held in respect of the ADSs may be limited by U.S. and English law considerations applicable at the time of withdrawal. In order to withdraw the ordinary shares represented
 
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by your ADSs, you will be required to pay to the depositary bank the fees for cancellation of ADSs and any charges and taxes payable upon the transfer of the ordinary shares. You assume the risk for delivery of all funds and securities upon withdrawal. Once canceled, the ADSs will not have any rights under the deposit agreement.
If you hold ADSs registered in your name, the depositary bank may ask you to provide proof of identity and genuineness of any signature and such other documents as the depositary bank may deem appropriate before it will cancel your ADSs. The withdrawal of the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs may be delayed until the depositary bank receives satisfactory evidence of compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. Please keep in mind that the depositary bank will only accept ADSs for cancellation that represent a whole number of securities on deposit.
You will have the right to withdraw the securities represented by your ADSs at any time except for:

temporary delays that may arise because (i) the transfer books for the ordinary shares or ADSs are closed, or (ii) ordinary shares are immobilized on account of a shareholders’ meeting or a payment of dividends;

obligations to pay fees, taxes and similar charges; or

restrictions imposed because of laws or regulations applicable to ADSs or the withdrawal of securities on deposit.
The deposit agreement may not be modified to impair your right to withdraw the securities represented by your ADSs except to comply with mandatory provisions of law.
Voting Rights
As a holder, you generally have the right under the deposit agreement to instruct the depositary bank to exercise the voting rights for the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs. The voting rights of holders of ordinary shares are described in the section entitled “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association.”
At our request, the depositary bank will distribute to you any notice of shareholders’ meeting received from us together with information explaining how to instruct the depositary bank to exercise the voting rights of the securities represented by ADSs. In lieu of distributing such materials, the depositary bank may distribute to holders of ADSs instructions on how to retrieve such materials upon request.
If the depositary bank timely receives voting instructions from a holder of ADSs, it will endeavor to vote the securities (in person or by proxy) represented by the holder’s ADSs as follows:

In the event of voting by show of hands, the depositary bank will vote (or cause the custodian to vote) all ordinary shares held on deposit at that time in accordance with the voting instructions received from a majority of holders of ADSs who provide timely voting instructions.

In the event of voting by poll, the depositary bank will vote (or cause the Custodian to vote) the ordinary shares held on deposit in accordance with the voting instructions received from the holders of ADSs.
Securities for which no voting instructions have been received will not be voted (except (a) as set forth above in the case voting is by show of hands, (b) in the event of voting by poll, holders of ADSs in respect of which no timely voting instructions have been received shall be deemed to have instructed the depositary to give a discretionary proxy to a person designated by us to vote the ordinary shares represented by such holders’ ADSs; provided, however, that no such discretionary proxy shall be given with respect to any matter to be voted upon as to which we inform the depositary that (i) we do not wish such proxy to be given, (ii) substantial opposition exists, or (iii) the rights of holders of ordinary shares may be adversely affected, and (c) as otherwise contemplated in the deposit agreement). Please note that the ability of the depositary to carry out voting instructions may be limited by practical and legal limitations and the terms of the securities on deposit. We cannot assure you that you will receive voting materials in time to enable you to return voting instructions to the depositary in a timely manner.
 
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Fees and Charges
As an ADS holder, you will be required to pay the following fees under the terms of the deposit agreement:
Service
Fees

Issuance of ADSs (e.g., an issuance of ADS upon a deposit of ordinary shares, upon a change in the ADS(s)-to-ordinary-share(s) ratio, or for any other reason), excluding ADS issuances as a result of distributions of shares)
Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS issued

Cancellation of ADSs (e.g., a cancellation of ADSs for delivery of deposited property, upon a change in the ADS(s)-to-ordinary-share(s) ratio, or for any other reason)
Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS cancelled

Distribution of cash dividends or other cash distributions (e.g., upon a sale of rights and other entitlements)
Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS held

Distribution of ADSs pursuant to (i) stock dividends or other free stock distributions, or (ii) exercise of rights to purchase additional ADSs
Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS held

Distribution of securities other than ADSs or rights to purchase additional ADSs (e.g., upon a spin-off)
Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS held

ADS Services
Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS held on the applicable record date(s) established by the depositary bank

Registration of ADS transfers (e.g., upon a registration of the transfer of registered ownership of ADSs, upon a transfer of ADSs into DTC and vice versa, or for any other reason)
Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS (or fraction thereof) transferred

Conversion of ADSs of one series for ADSs of another series (e.g., upon conversion of Partial Entitlement ADSs for Full Entitlement ADSs, or upon conversion of Restricted ADSs (each as defined in the Deposit Agreement) into freely transferable ADSs, and vice versa).
Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS (or fraction thereof) converted
As an ADS holder you will also be responsible to pay certain charges such as:

taxes (including applicable interest and penalties) and other governmental charges;

the registration fees as may from time to time be in effect for the registration of ordinary shares on the share register and applicable to transfers of ordinary shares to or from the name of the custodian, the depositary bank or any nominees upon the making of deposits and withdrawals, respectively;

certain cable, telex and facsimile transmission and delivery expenses;

the fees, expenses, spreads, taxes and other charges of the depositary bank and/or service providers (which may be a division, branch or affiliate of the depositary bank) in the conversion of foreign currency;

the reasonable and customary out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the depositary bank in connection with compliance with exchange control regulations and other regulatory requirements applicable to ordinary shares, ADSs and ADRs; and

the fees, charges, costs and expenses incurred by the depositary bank, the custodian, or any nominee in connection with the ADR program.
ADS fees and charges for (i) the issuance of ADSs, and (ii) the cancellation of ADSs are charged to the person for whom the ADSs are issued (in the case of ADS issuances) and to the person for whom ADSs are cancelled (in the case of ADS cancellations). In the case of ADSs issued by the depositary bank into
 
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DTC, the ADS issuance and cancellation fees and charges may be deducted from distributions made through DTC, and may be charged to the DTC participant(s) receiving the ADSs being issued or the DTC participant(s) holding the ADSs being cancelled, as the case may be, on behalf of the beneficial owner(s) and will be charged by the DTC participant(s) to the account of the applicable beneficial owner(s) in accordance with the procedures and practices of the DTC participants as in effect at the time. ADS fees and charges in respect of distributions and the ADS service fee are charged to the holders as of the applicable ADS record date. In the case of distributions of cash, the amount of the applicable ADS fees and charges is deducted from the funds being distributed. In the case of (i) distributions other than cash and (ii) the ADS service fee, holders as of the ADS record date will be invoiced for the amount of the ADS fees and charges and such ADS fees and charges may be deducted from distributions made to holders of ADSs. For ADSs held through DTC, the ADS fees and charges for distributions other than cash and the ADS service fee may be deducted from distributions made through DTC, and may be charged to the DTC participants in accordance with the procedures and practices prescribed by DTC and the DTC participants in turn charge the amount of such ADS fees and charges to the beneficial owners for whom they hold ADSs. In the case of (i) registration of ADS transfers, the ADS transfer fee will be payable by the ADS holder whose ADSs are being transferred or by the person to whom the ADSs are transferred, and (ii) conversion of ADSs of one series for ADSs of another series, the ADS conversion fee will be payable by the holder whose ADSs are converted or by the person to whom the converted ADSs are delivered.
In the event of refusal to pay the depositary bank fees, the depositary bank may, under the terms of the deposit agreement, refuse the requested service until payment is received or may set off the amount of the depositary bank fees from any distribution to be made to the ADS holder. Certain depositary fees and charges (such as the ADS services fee) may become payable shortly after the closing of the ADS offering. Note that the fees and charges you may be required to pay may vary over time and may be changed by us and by the depositary bank. You will receive prior notice of such changes. The depositary bank may reimburse us for certain expenses incurred by us in respect of the ADR program, by making available a portion of the ADS fees charged in respect of the ADR program or otherwise, upon such terms and conditions as we and the depositary bank agree from time to time.
Amendments and Termination
We may agree with the depositary bank to modify the deposit agreement at any time without your consent. We undertake to give holders 30 days’ prior notice of any modifications that would materially prejudice any of their substantial rights under the deposit agreement. We will not consider to be materially prejudicial to your substantial rights any modifications or supplements that are reasonably necessary for the ADSs to be registered under the Securities Act or to be eligible for book-entry settlement, in each case without imposing or increasing the fees and charges you are required to pay. In addition, we may not be able to provide you with prior notice of any modifications or supplements that are required to accommodate compliance with applicable provisions of law.
You will be bound by the modifications to the deposit agreement if you continue to hold your ADSs after the modifications to the deposit agreement become effective. The deposit agreement cannot be amended to prevent you from withdrawing the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs (except as permitted by law).
We have the right to direct the depositary bank to terminate the deposit agreement. Similarly, the depositary bank may in certain circumstances on its own initiative terminate the deposit agreement. In either case, the depositary bank must give notice to the holders at least 30 days before termination. Until termination, your rights under the deposit agreement will be unaffected.
After termination, the depositary bank will continue to collect distributions received (but will not distribute any such property until you request the cancellation of your ADSs) and may sell the securities held on deposit. After the sale, the depositary bank will hold the proceeds from such sale and any other funds then held for the holders of ADSs in a non-interest bearing account. At that point, the depositary bank will have no further obligations to holders other than to account for the funds then held for the holders of ADSs still outstanding (after deduction of applicable fees, taxes and expenses).
 
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In connection with any termination of the deposit agreement, the depositary bank may make available to owners of ADSs a means to withdraw the ordinary shares represented by ADSs and (subject to the payment of applicable taxes) to direct the deposit of such ordinary shares into an unsponsored American depositary share program established by the depositary bank. The ability to receive unsponsored American depositary shares upon termination of the deposit agreement would be subject to satisfaction of certain U.S. regulatory requirements applicable to the creation of unsponsored American depositary shares and the payment of applicable depositary fees.
Books of Depositary
The depositary bank will maintain ADS holder records at its depositary office. You may inspect such records at such office during regular business hours but solely for the purpose of communicating with other holders in the interest of business matters relating to the ADSs and the deposit agreement.
The depositary bank will maintain in New York facilities to record and process the issuance, cancellation, combination, split-up and transfer of ADSs. These facilities may be closed from time to time, to the extent not prohibited by law.
Limitations on Obligations and Liabilities
The deposit agreement limits our obligations and the depositary bank’s obligations to you. Please note the following:

We and the depositary bank are obligated only to take the actions specifically stated in the deposit agreement without negligence or bad faith.

The depositary bank disclaims any liability for any failure to carry out voting instructions, for any manner in which a vote is cast or for the effect of any vote, provided it acts in good faith and in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement.

The depositary bank disclaims any liability for any failure to determine the lawfulness or practicality of any action, for the content of any document forwarded to you on our behalf or for the accuracy of any translation of such a document, for the investment risks associated with investing in ordinary shares, for the validity or worth of the ordinary shares, for any tax consequences that result from the ownership of ADSs, for the credit-worthiness of any third party, for allowing any rights to lapse under the terms of the deposit agreement, for the timeliness of any of our notices or for our failure to give notice.

We and the depositary bank will not be obligated to perform any act that is inconsistent with the terms of the deposit agreement.

We and the depositary bank disclaim any liability if we or the depositary bank are prevented or forbidden from or subject to any civil or criminal penalty or restraint on account of, or delayed in, doing or performing any act or thing required by the terms of the deposit agreement, by reason of any provision, present or future of any law or regulation, or by reason of present or future provision of any provision of our Articles, or any provision of or governing the securities on deposit, or by reason of any act of God or war or other circumstances beyond our control.

We and the depositary bank disclaim any liability by reason of any exercise of, or failure to exercise, any discretion provided for in the deposit agreement or in our Articles or in any provisions of or governing the securities on deposit.

We and the depositary bank further disclaim any liability for any action or inaction in reliance on the advice or information received from legal counsel, accountants, any person presenting ordinary shares for deposit, any holder of ADSs or authorized representatives thereof, or any other person believed by either of us in good faith to be competent to give such advice or information.

We and the depositary bank also disclaim liability for the inability by a holder to benefit from any distribution, offering, right or other benefit that is made available to holders of ordinary shares but is not, under the terms of the deposit agreement, made available to you.
 
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We and the depositary bank may rely without any liability upon any written notice, request or other document believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper parties.

We and the depositary bank also disclaim liability for any consequential or punitive damages for any breach of the terms of the deposit agreement.

No disclaimer of any Securities Act liability is intended by any provision of the deposit agreement.

Nothing in the deposit agreement gives rise to a partnership or joint venture, or establishes a fiduciary relationship, among us, the depositary bank and you as ADS holder.

Nothing in the deposit agreement precludes Citibank (or its affiliates) from engaging in transactions in which parties adverse to us or the ADS owners have interests, and nothing in the deposit agreement obligates Citibank to disclose those transactions, or any information obtained in the course of those transactions, to us or to the ADS owners, or to account for any payment received as part of those transactions.
As the above limitations relate to our obligations and the depositary’s obligations to you under the deposit agreement, we believe that, as a matter of construction of the clause, such limitations would likely to continue to apply to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares from the ADS facility with respect to obligations or liabilities incurred under the deposit agreement before the cancellation of the ADSs and the withdrawal of the ordinary shares, and such limitations would most likely not apply to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares from the ADS facility with respect to obligations or liabilities incurred after the cancellation of the ADSs and the withdrawal of the ordinary shares and not under the deposit agreement.
In any event, you will not be deemed, by agreeing to the terms of the deposit agreement, to have waived our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. In fact, you cannot waive our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Taxes
You will be responsible for the taxes and other governmental charges payable on the ADSs and the securities represented by the ADSs. We, the depositary bank and the custodian may deduct from any distribution the taxes and governmental charges payable by holders and may sell any and all property on deposit to pay the taxes and governmental charges payable by holders. You will be liable for any deficiency if the sale proceeds do not cover the taxes that are due.
The depositary bank may refuse to issue ADSs, to deliver, transfer, split and combine ADRs or to release securities on deposit until all taxes and charges are paid by the applicable holder. The depositary bank and the custodian may take reasonable administrative actions to obtain tax refunds and reduced tax withholding for any distributions on your behalf. However, you may be required to provide to the depositary bank and to the custodian proof of taxpayer status and residence and such other information as the depositary bank and the custodian may require to fulfill legal obligations. You are required to indemnify us, the depositary bank and the custodian for any claims with respect to taxes based on any tax benefit obtained for you.
Foreign Currency Conversion
The depositary bank will arrange for the conversion of all foreign currency received into U.S. dollars if such conversion is practical, and it will distribute the U.S. dollars in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement. You may have to pay fees and expenses incurred in converting foreign currency, such as fees and expenses incurred in complying with currency exchange controls and other governmental requirements.
If the conversion of foreign currency is not practical or lawful, or if any required approvals are denied or not obtainable at a reasonable cost or within a reasonable period, the depositary bank may take the following actions in its discretion:

Convert the foreign currency to the extent practical and lawful and distribute the U.S. dollars to the holders for whom the conversion and distribution is lawful and practical.
 
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Distribute the foreign currency to holders for whom the distribution is lawful and practical.

Hold the foreign currency (without liability for interest) for the applicable holders.
Governing Law/Waiver of Jury Trial
The deposit agreement, the ADRs and the ADSs will be interpreted in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. The rights of holders of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares represented by ADSs) are governed by the laws of England and Wales.
AS A PARTY TO THE DEPOSIT AGREEMENT, YOU IRREVOCABLY WAIVE, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, YOUR RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF THE DEPOSIT AGREEMENT OR THE ADRs AGAINST US AND/OR THE DEPOSITARY BANK.
The deposit agreement provides that, to the extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our ordinary shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under U.S. federal securities laws. If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable in the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with applicable case law. However, you will not be deemed, by agreeing to the terms of the deposit agreement, to have waived our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.
We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.
General
The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.
We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

the title of the series of debt securities;

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

the maturity date or dates;

the form of the debt securities of the series;

the applicability of any guarantees;

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
 
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the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and
 
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any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.
Conversion or Exchange Rights
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our ordinary shares or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our ordinary shares or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.
Consolidation, Merger or Sale
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.
Events of Default under the Indenture
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.
If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or
 
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events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.
Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.
A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.
These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.
We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.
Modification of Indenture; Waiver
We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities — Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;
 
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to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.
In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.
Discharge
Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

provide for payment;

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

maintain paying agencies;

hold monies for payment in trust;

recover excess money held by the trustee;

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

appoint any successor trustee.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.
Form, Exchange and Transfer
We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any
 
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series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.
We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.
If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.
Information Concerning the Trustee
The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
General
The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be distributed to you, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase ordinary shares, ADSs representing ordinary shares, preference shares or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with ordinary shares, ADSs representing ordinary shares, preference shares or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.
We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, if any, including a form of warrant certificate, that contains the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, as well as any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectus, and the complete form of warrant or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.
General
In the applicable prospectus supplement, we will describe the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

the offering price or prices and aggregate number of warrants offered;

the currency or currencies for which the warrants may be purchased;

the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable on exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased on such exercise;

in the case of warrants to purchase ordinary shares, ADSs representing ordinary shares or preference shares, the number of equity securities purchasable on the exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and the currency in which, these equity securities may be purchased on such exercise;

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable on exercise of the warrants;
 
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the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

a discussion of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations and any applicable material U.K. tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;

the terms of the securities issuable on exercise of the warrants; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.
Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable on such exercise, including:

in the case of warrants to purchase ordinary shares, ADSs representing ordinary shares, or preference shares, the right to receive dividends, if any, or payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any; or

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as described in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the expiration date that we list in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.
On receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable on such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.
Governing Law
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplements summarizes the material terms and provisions of the rights that we may offer under this prospectus and the related rights agreements. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any rights that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any rights in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any rights offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.
We will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC the form of any rights certificate or rights agreement that describes the terms of the rights we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related rights. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the rights are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of any rights certificate or rights agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to particular rights. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular rights that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses and the complete rights certificate or rights agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the rights.
General
We may issue rights to purchase our equity or debt securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more securities offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the shareholder receiving the rights in such offering, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with any offering of rights, we may enter into a standby agreement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriter or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the specific terms of any offering of rights for which this prospectus is being delivered, including the following:

the price, if any, for the rights;

the exercise price payable for our equity or debt securities upon the exercise of the rights;

the number of rights issued to each shareholder;

the amount of our equity or debt securities that may be purchased per each right;

the extent to which the rights are transferable;

any other terms of the rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the rights;

the date on which the right to exercise the rights shall commence, and the date on which the rights shall expire;

the extent to which the rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement entered into by us in connection with the offering of rights.
Rights Agent
The rights agent, if any, for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.
We will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of units that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses and the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.
General
We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date or upon the occurrence of a specified event or occurrence.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units being offered, including:

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below;

certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations and material U.K. tax considerations relevant to the units; and

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.
The provisions described in this section, as well as those set forth in any prospectus supplement or as described under the sections entitled “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association,” “Description of American Depositary Shares,” “Description of Debt Securities,” “Description of Warrants” and “Description of Rights” will apply to each unit, as applicable, and to any ordinary shares represented by ADSs, preference shares, debt security, warrant or right included in each unit, as applicable.
Unit Agent
The name and address of the unit agent, if any, for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Issuance in Series
We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.
Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units
Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.
 
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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES
We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.
Book-Entry Holders
We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.
Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.
As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.
Street Name Holders
We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.
For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.
Legal Holders
Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.
For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our
 
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obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.
Special Considerations for Indirect Holders
If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

how it handles securities payments and notices;

whether it imposes fees or charges;

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.
Global Securities
A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.
Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities, other than our ADSs, issued in book-entry form.
A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “— Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.
If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.
Special Considerations for Global Securities
As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.
If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
 
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an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.
There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.
Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated
In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, a global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.
The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.
We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price on or through the facilities of Nasdaq or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale. Such at the market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.
A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

any public offering price;

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.
Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.
We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.
We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.
 
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We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.
All securities we offer, other than our ordinary shares or ADSs, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.
Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.
Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on Nasdaq may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on Nasdaq in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.
 
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TAXATION
Certain material U.S. federal income tax and, to the extent applicable, material U.K. tax considerations relating to the acquisition, ownership and disposition of any of the securities offered by this prospectus will be set forth in the prospectus supplement pertaining to those securities.
LEGAL MATTERS
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the debt securities, warrants and units governed by U.S. law and certain other matters of U.S. law will be passed upon for us by Cooley LLP. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of our ordinary shares, including ordinary shares represented by ADSs, and preference shares and certain matters governed by English law will be passed on for us by Cooley (UK) LLP. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
 
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SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF LIABILITIES
We are incorporated and currently existing under the laws of England and Wales. In addition, certain of our directors and officers reside outside of the United States and most of the assets of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process on us or those persons in the United States or to enforce in the United States judgments obtained in U.S. courts against us or those persons based on the civil liability or other provisions of the United States’ securities laws or other laws.
In addition, uncertainty exists as to whether the courts of England and Wales would:

recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liabilities provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or

entertain original actions brought in England and Wales against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.
We have been advised by Cooley (UK) LLP and Cooley LLP that there is currently no treaty between (i) the United States and (ii) England and Wales providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts in civil and commercial matters (although the United States and the United Kingdom are both parties to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards) and that a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any general or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether predicated solely upon the United States’ securities laws, would not be automatically enforceable in England and Wales. We have also been advised by Cooley (UK) LLP that any final and conclusive monetary judgment for a definite sum obtained against us in U.S. courts would be treated by the courts of England and Wales as a cause of action in itself and sued upon as a debt at common law so that no retrial of the issues would be necessary, provided that:

the relevant U.S. court had jurisdiction over the original proceedings according to English conflicts of laws principles at the time when proceedings were initiated;

England and Wales courts had jurisdiction over the matter on enforcement and we either submitted to such jurisdiction or were resident or carrying on business within such jurisdiction and were duly served with process;

the U.S. judgment was final and conclusive on the merits in the sense of being final and unalterable in the court that pronounced it and being for a definite sum of money;

the judgment given by the courts was not in respect of penalties, taxes, fines or similar fiscal or revenue obligations (or otherwise based on a U.S. law that an English court considers to relate to a penal, revenue or other public law);

the judgment was not procured by fraud;

the judgment was not obtained following a breach of a jurisdictional or arbitrational clause, unless with the agreement of the defendant or the defendant’s subsequent submission to the jurisdiction of the court;

recognition or enforcement of the judgment in England and Wales would not be contrary to public policy or the Human Rights Act 1998;

the proceedings pursuant to which judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice;

the U.S. judgment was not arrived at by doubling, trebling or otherwise multiplying a sum assessed as compensation for the loss or damages sustained and not being otherwise in breach of Section 5 of the U.K. Protection of Trading Interests Act 1980, or is a judgment based on measures designated by the Secretary of State under Section 1 of that Act;

there is not a prior decision of an English court or the court of another jurisdiction on the issues in question between the same parties; and

the English enforcement proceedings were commenced within the limitation period.
 
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Whether these requirements are met in respect of a judgment based upon the civil liability provisions of the United States’ securities laws, including whether the award of monetary damages under such laws would constitute a penalty, is an issue for the court making such decision.
Subject to the foregoing, investors may be able to enforce in England and Wales judgments in civil and commercial matters that have been obtained from U.S. federal or state courts. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that those judgments will be recognized or enforceable in England and Wales.
If an English court gives judgment for the sum payable under a U.S. judgment, the English judgment will be enforceable by methods generally available for this purpose. These methods generally permit the English court discretion to prescribe the manner of enforcement. In addition, it may not be possible to obtain an English judgment or to enforce that judgment if the judgment debtor is or becomes subject to any insolvency or similar proceedings, or if the judgment debtor has any set-off or counterclaim against the judgment creditor. Also note that, in any enforcement proceedings, the judgment debtor may raise any counterclaim that could have been brought if the action had been originally brought in England unless the subject of the counterclaim was in issue and denied in the U.S. proceedings.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.bicycletherapeutics.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
 
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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE